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<uhf;fpd; ,UngUefuq;fspd; tuyhw;Wr; rpwg;Gfs;


g]uh

,d;iwa nra;jpj; jhs;fspy; g]uh vd;w ,e;jg; ngaH nfhz;l efuk; mjpfk; mbgl;Lf; nfhz;bUg;gij ehk; mwpNthk;. Mk;! <uhf;if Mf;fpukpj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; Mjpf;fhtjpfs; ehq;fs; g]uh efiuf; ifg;gw;wp tpl;Nlhk;. ,d;Dk; ghf;jhj; efH jhd; kpr;rk; vd;W $f;Fuypl;Lf; nfhz;bUg;gJ ,d;Dk; ek; fhJfspy; xypj;Jf; nfhz;L jhdpUf;fpd;wJ. rpYit Aj;jf;fhuHfs; Vd; ,e;j g]uh efUf;F ,t;tsT Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLj;J nra;jpfis ntspapLfpd;whHfs; vd;gij K];ypk;fshfpa ehk; mwpe;J nfhs;s Ntz;baJ mtrpak;. ,e;j g]uh efH gw;wpa rpy nra;jpfis cq;fsJ epidTf;F nfhz;L tUtjd; %yk;> ehk; ve;jsT ,];yhkpa tuyhw;Wg; gbg;gpidfspy; gpd;jq;fp ,Ue;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;Nwhk; vd;gijr; Rl;bf; fhl;LtJk;> ,d;Dk; ,];yhj;jpd; vjphpfs; vt;thW fsk; mikj;J ,];yhj;J vjpuhd tuyhw;iw mwpe;J gbj;J> ,];yhkpa tPo;r;rpf;F fsk; mikj;Jr; nray;gLfpd;whHfs; vd;gij czHe;J> ek;Kila tho;f;ifg; Nghf;if khw;wpf; nfhs;tJk; ,jd; Kf;fpa Nehf;fkhFk;.

jw;Nghija <uhf;fpd; Kf;fpa efHfSs; xd;whd g]uh gf;jhj; efUf;F njd;Nkw;Nf Kd;D}W iky; J}uj;jpy; mike;Js;sJ. ,uz;lhk; fyPgh ckH (uyp) mtHfspd; mwpTWj;jYf;F mika fp.gp. 637 y; my;yJ 638 y; ,e;efH cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ckH (uyp) mtHfspd; fhyj;jpy; ,e;efH XH ,uhZt efuhfNt ,Ue;jJ. ehsiltpy; mjd; [dg; ngUf;fk; mjpNtfkhf mjpfhpj;jJ.

,];yhkpa tuyhw;wpd; gy;NtW Jiwfspy; g]uh efH Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngw;wpUe;jJ. jy;`h (uyp)> RigH (uyp) vDk; ,UtUk; ,q;F mjpf MjuthsHfisf; nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;. mtH myp (uyp) mtHfSf;F mspj;j igmj;ij thg]; thq;fpa gpd; g]uhTf;Nf te;jhHfs;. md;id Map\h (uyp) mtHfSld; NrHe;J mt;tpUtUk; mq;fpUe;Nj myp (uyp) mtHfSf;F vjpuhf NghHf;nfhb J}f;fpdhHfs;. ,e;efUf;F mUfpy; ,Ue;j Fiwgh vDk; ,lj;jpy; jhd; xl;lif Aj;jk; ,lk; ngw;wJ. cikahf;fs; fhyj;jpy; g]uh Furhd; khfhzj;jpd; jiyefuhf ,Ue;jJ. fhhpp[pa;ahf;fs; ,e;efhpy; nry;thf;Fg; ngw;wpUe;jdH.

K/j]pyhf; Nfhl;ghl;ilg; gpd;gw;wpa rpe;jidahsHfspy; Kf;fpakhd gyH mq;F tho;e;jdH. gw;ww;w tho;tpy; ngUtpUg;Gf; nfhz;bUe;j `]d; g]hp (u`;)> uhgpaj;Jy; mjtpa;ah  Nghd;w Md;kPfj; Jiw rhHe;j mwpQHfSk; ,e;efhpNyNa tho;e;J> jk; rpe;jidfisg; gug;gpdH. K/j]pyhf; Nfhl;ghl;il vjpHg;gjw;fhd cWjpahd mbj;jsk; xd;iw mikj;j mGy; `]d; my; m\;mhp (u`;) Nghd;NwhH ,e;efhpy; jhd; tho;e;jdH. K/j]pyhf; Nfhl;ghl;bdUf;Fk; mjid vjpHj;j kuG hPjpahd rpe;jidg; Nghf;FilNahUf;Fk; ,ilNa eLT epiyia mikf;f tpUk;gp ,ufrpakhfr; nray;gl;l ,/thD];]gh vDk; ,af;fr; rNfhjuHfspd; kj;jpa epiyakhfTk; g]uh mike;jpUe;jJ.

mg;ghrpaHfspd; fhyj;jpy; ehfhPfj;Jiwapy; g]uh tsHr;rp fz;bUe;jJ NghyNt nghUsjhuj; JiwapYk; tsHr;rp fz;bUe;jJ. gz;ila fhyj;jpy; gpurpj;jp ngw;wpUe;j xNghyhj; JiwKfj;Jf;F mUNf g]uh efH mike;jpUe;jJ. xNghyhj; JiwKfj;Jld; e`;j; my; xNghth> e`;H my;kcfpy; vDk; ,U fhy;tha;fs; nry;yf; $ba msT tprhykhdit. ,jdhy; ntspAyf njhlHigAk; mJ Neubahfg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sf; $ba tha;g;G Vw;gl;lJ. ,r;#oy; fhuzkhfNt g]uhtpd; nghUshjhuk; mgptpUj;jp fz;lJ. mofpa gs;spfs;> E}y; epiyaq;fs;> fy;Y}hpfs;> kUj;Jtkidfs; Nghd;wdTk; ,f;fhyg;gphptpy; fl;lg;gl;bUe;jd.

ghf;jhj;

mg;gh]pa fyPgh mG+ [/gH my; kd;#H ghgpNyhdpy;> Kd;dhs; ghurPf kd;ddhd mD}rpHthdpd; Nfhil fhy thr];jykhf ,Ue;j ,lj;jpy; ghf;jhJ efiu epWtpdhH. ilf;hP]; ejpapd; Nkw;Fg; gf;fkhf ,e;efH mikf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. gpd;te;j Ml;rpahsH ,e;efiu ejpapd; kWfiug; gf;fkhfTk; tprhykhf;fpdH. fpof;F Nkw;F tHj;jfg; ghij topapy; ,e;efH mike;J fg;gy; ,wq;FJiwfisAk; nfhz;bUe;jjhy; tHj;jf tha;g;Gfs; ,q;F mjpfhpj;jd. mjdhy; tHj;jfHfSk;> mtHfisr; rhHe;jtHfSk;> jiyefuhdikahy; mur epHthfpfSk; ,uhZt tPuHfSk;> mwpQHfSk;> mq;F xd;W $bdH. mtHfs; jq;Ftjw;F Njitahd trjpfs; gy mq;F nra;ag;gl;bUe;jd.

efug;ghJfhg;Gf;fhd Nfhl;ilfs; fl;lg;gl;ld. efiur; Rw;wp kjpy; fl;lg;gl;lJ. mj;jpthj;Jld; kjpypd; cauk; 105 mb MFk;. mj;jpthuk; 15 mb Moj;jpy; Nghlg;gl;bUe;jJ. kjpypd; cr;rpj;jsk; 37 miu mb mfyKilaJ. kjpiyr; Rw;wp mfo; mikf;fg;gl;bUe;jd. gf;jhJ efUf;F ehd;F thapy;fs; mikf;fg;gl;bUe;jd. mit $gh thapy;> g]uh thapy;> Furhd; thapy;> rphpah thapy; vd;wiof;fg;gl;ld. tl;ltbtkhd ,e;efhpd; thapy;fSf;fpilapyhd J}uk; rk msthf ,Ue;jJ. thapy; mbapy; tiskhlj;ijAk; GFk; kz;lgj;ijAk; cila xU tPL ,Ue;jJ. mjpy; gil tPuHfs; fhty; ,Ue;jdH. efhpd; cl;Gwj;Nj 37 miu mb mfykhd ghijfs; Nghlg;gl;bUe;jd. efhpd; eLkj;jpapy; k];[pj;fs; khspiffs; vd;gd mikf;fg;gl;;bUe;jd.

fpof;F Nkw;F tHj;jf ghijia jiukhHf;fkhfTk; fly; khHf;fkhfTk; ,izf;Fk; xU efukhf ghf;jhJ mike;jjhy; me;efH nghUs; tsk;kpf;f efuhf tsUk; tha;g;igf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. Mapuj;NjhH ,uT fijfs; mjd; nghUs; tsr; rpwg;ig moFwf; fhz;gpf;fpd;wd.

fyPgh khKdpd; tpthf itgtk; gw;wp tuyhw;whrphpaHfs; je;Js;s tpguq;fs; ghf;jhjpd; nghUs; tsj;Jf;F rhd;W gfHfpd;wd. fyPgh kh%d; jd; Kjyikr;rH `]d; gpd; ]`;ypd; kfis kzk; Ghpe;j NghJ `]d; gpd; ]`;y; gjpNdO jpdq;fs; tpthf tpUe;J gilj;jhH. ,j;jpdq;fspy; muz;kidapw; rpw;W}opaHfs; $l gpuGf;fs; NghyNt fhyk; fopj;jdH. ,t;tpUe;Jf;F te;jtHfSf;F f];J}hpAk; mk;gUk; fljhrpfspd; Rw;wg;gl;L toq;fg;gl;ld. mf;fljhrpfspy; mtw;iwg; ngWgtHfSf;fhd md;gspg;Gg; nghUl;fspd; ngaHfs; vOjg;gl;bUe;jd. mf;fbj ciwfis f[dhf;fspy; fhz;gpj;J> mtw;wpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUf;Fk; nghUl;fis ghpRg; nghUl;fshfg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s top tiffs; nra;ag;gl;bUe;jd. mj;jhs;fspy; ngUe;Njhl;lq;fspd; ngaHfs;> mbikfs;> Fjpiuf; $l;lq;fs; Nghd;w kjpg;Gkpf;f nghUl;fspd; ngaHfs; vOjg;gl;bUe;jd.

ghf;jhJ nghUs; tsj;jpy;  kl;Lkpd;wp mwptpay; JiwapYk; kw;nwe;j efiu tplTk; Kd;Ndw;wk; fz;bUe;jJ. mwpQHfSk; fiyQHfSk; mq;F Mjhpf;fg;gl;ldH. tpQ;Qhdf; fiyfs;> mofpa fiyfs; vd;gd mq;F tsHr;rp fz;ld.

FHMd; tpsf;fTiu> `jP];> gpf;`{f; fiy> tuyhW> kUj;Jtk;> jj;Jttpay;> fzpjtpay;> Gtp,ay;> nka;apay;> mofpay; Kjyhk; fiyfs; mq;F tsHr;rp fz;bUe;jd. fy;tpf; $lq;fSk;> gy;fiyf;fofq;fSk;> E}y; epiyaq;fSk;> nkhop ngaHg;G epiyaq;fSk;> kUj;Jt kidfSk;> Gj;jff; filfSk;> jq;Fkplq;fSk; gf;jhij myq;fhpj;jd. RUq;ff; $wpd; mg;ghrpaH fhyj;jpy; Vw;gl;l ,];yhkpa ehfhPfj;jpd; tsHr;rpapidg; gpujpgypg;gjhf ghf;jhJ mike;jpUe;jJ.

,];yhkpa ehfhPfj;jpd; Nkk;ghl;il vLj;Jf;fhl;lf; $ba xU efuhf ghf;jhJ cUntLj;J G+uz tsHr;rp fz;l NghJ ,ilf;fpil Vw;gl;l cs;ehl;Lf; fytuq;fshYk;> fp.gp. 1258 y; kq;NfhypaHfs; ehfhPfkw;w Kiwapy; ehfhPfr; rpd;dq;fis mopj;J xopj;J vhpj;jjhYk; mjd; rpd;dq;fisj;jhDk; mjd; mry; epiyapy; ,d;W fhz Kbtjpy;iy. mjd; gpd; ,ilf;fpil Vw;gl;l gil vLg;Gfs; fhuzkhf ghf;jhJ ,d;Wtiu mjd; gioa Nkk;ghl;L epiyia mila Kbatpy;iy.

md;iwf;F kq;NfhypaHfs; ghf;jhijf; ifg;gw;wp mq;fpUe;j E}y;epiyaq;fspy; cs;s E}y;fis ilf;hP]; ejpapy; vhpe;J> mjd; kPJ kq;Nfhypag; giltPuHfs; Mw;iwf; fle;J ,f; fiuf;F te;jjhf rhpj;jpuf; Fwpg;Gfs; $Wfpd;wd. ,d;Dk; Mw;wpy; tPrpa E}y;fspd; fhuzkhf> me;j ejpNa fWik epwkhd khwp tpl;bUe;jjhfTk; $wg;gLfpd;wJ.

kq;NfhypaHfspd; gilnaLg;Gf; fhuzkhf mope;Jgl;l ghf;jhj;> ghf;jhijf; ifg;gw;wp kq;Nfhypa kd;ddJ Ngud; ,];yhj;ij Vw;Wf; nfhz;l nghOJ> kPz;Lk; ,];yhk; mq;F kWkyHr;rp fz;lJ vd;gJk; tuyhw;W cz;ikahFk;.

 
 

 

 
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