ngz;fspd; epiy ,];yhj;jpYk; A+j - fpU];jt khh;f;fq;fspYk;

         mwpKfk;

         Vthspd; jtW

         Vths; tpl;l nrhj;J

         ,optpw;Fhpa ngz; kf;fs;

         ngz; fy;tp

         J}a;ikaw;w jPl;Lg;gl;l ngz;

         rhl;rp $Wjy;

         fs;s cwT (tpgr;rhuk;)

         Neh;r;ir rgjk;

         kidtpapd; nrhj;J

         tpthfuj;J

         jha;khh;fs;

         ngz;fSf;F nrhj;Jhpik

         tpjitfspd; Jd;g epiyfs;

         gyjhu kzk;

         jpiu (gh;jh - `p[hg;)

         KbTiu

         Mjhu E}y;fs;

         mwpKfk;

Ie;J tUlq;fSf;F Kd;dh;> 3-7-1990 y; ntspte;j NlhNuhz;Nlh ];lhh; ,jopy; ntspaplg;gl;oUe;j lhf;lh; itd; ilh; mth;fspd; ,];yhk; khj;jpuk; Fyf; nfhs;iffisf; nfhz;ljy;y vd;w fl;Liuia gbj;Njd;.  vfpg;jpa ngz;Zhpikthjpahd lhf;lh; ety; ]hjtp njhptpj;j rpy fUj;Jf;fs; gw;wp khz;l;hPypy; ele;j ngz;Zk; typikAk; vd;w khehl;bw;F te;jpUe;jth;fspd; Mf;Nuhrkhd vjph;g;ig me;j fl;Liu tpthpj;jpUe;jJ.

lhf;lh; ety; ]hjtpapd; murpay; hPjpahf rhpaw;w me;j fUj;Jf;fspy; cs;s rpy gpd; tUkhW : ngz;fis mjpfk; fl;Lg;gLj;jf; $baitfs; ,Ug;gJ Kjypy; A+j kjj;jpd; gioa Vw;ghl;bYk; gpd;G fpwp];jt kjj;jpYk; mjd; gpd; ,];yhj;jpYk; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.  vy;yh kjq;fSk; Fy hPjpahditfs; Vnddpy; mitfs; Fy hPjpahd r%f mikg;gpypUe;Nj Njhd;wpAs;sd.  ngz;fs; gh;jh mzptJ ,];yhj;jpw;NfAhpa gpuj;Nahf nfhs;ifay;y; Mdhy; rNfhjhp  (A+j fpwp];jt) khh;f;fj;jpy; fhzg;gl;L te;j> kpfTk; njhd;W njhl;l fhyj;jpypUe;J gpd;gw;W te;j gof;fNkahFk;.

jq;fsJ kjq;fs; ,];yhj;jpNdhL xg;gplg;gLtij khehl;ow;F te;jth;fshy; rfpj;Jf; nfhs;s Kbatpy;iy.  MfNt mth;fs; lhf;lh; ]jhtp mth;fs; kPJ tpkhprd kioiag; nghope;jhh;fs;. lhf;lh; ]jhtpapd; fUj;Jf;fs; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sj; jf;fitfsy;y.  kw;wth;fspd; kjj;ij gw;wpa mwpahikNa mthpd; gjpy;fs; ntspg;gLj;Jfpd;wd vd;W cyf jha;khh;fspd; ,af;fj;ij Nrh;e;j ngh;id]; Lgh]; mwptpj;jhh;.  ehd; ,ij tz;ikahf vjph;f;fpNwd; Vnddpy; gh;jh vDk; nfhs;if A+j kjj;jpy; ,y;iy vd ,];Nuypa nra;jp Nrfhpg;G epWtdj;ij rhh;e;j Myp]; ~hy;tp vd;w ngz; njhptpj;jhs;.

,];yhj;jpy; gpd;gw;wg;gl;L tUk;> Nkw;fj;jpa ehfhpfj;jpd; xU ghfkhfkhf ,Ue;j Nkw;fpd; nrhe;j gz;ghl;il (,];yhk;jhd; ,ij mwpKfg;gLj;jpaJ vd) Fiw $wp ,];yhj;ij gypfplhthf Mf;fpLk; Kul;Lj;jdkhd gof;fj;ijNa ,e;j khehl;by; ntspaplg;gl;l Mf;Nuhr vjph;g;Gf;fs; gpujpgypf;fpd;wd vd;W fl;Liu $wpaJ. fpwp];jt A+j ngz;Zhpikthjpfs; jPa K];ypk;fs; tpkh;rpf;fg;gLtijg; Nghy; tpkh;rpf;fg;gLtij ghh;j;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fkhl;lhh;fs;;  vd itd; ilh; vOJfpwhh;.

,ijg; Nghd;w khehl;bw;F tUif je;jpUg;gth;fs; ,];yhj;jpw;F vjpuhd ,J Nghd;w fUj;Jf;fis Fwpg;ghf ngz;fs; gw;wpa tpraq;fs; tpthjpf;fg;gLk; NghJ> cjph;g;gJ vdf;F Mr;rhpaj;ij cz;lhf;fpltpy;iy. ngz;fis Kw;wpYk; mbikg;gLj;Jtjpd; milahsk; vd;Nw Nkw;fpy; ,];yhk; ek;gg;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;j ek;gpf;if vt;tsT MokhdJ vd;gij Ghpe;J nfhs;s gh;jh mzpe;j K];ypk; ngz;fis gs;spfspypUe;J ntspNaw;w Ntz;Lnkd;W gpuhd;]pd; fy;tpj;Jiw mikr;rh; thy;Nlh; rkPgj;jpy; ntspapl;Ls;s cj;juT xd;Nw NghJkhdjhFk;.1 rpYit mzpe;j fj;Njhypf;f khztpAk; njhg;gp mzpe;j A+j khztpAk; gs;spfspy; mDkjpf;fg;gLk; NghJ gh;jh mzpe;j K];ypk; khztp khj;jpuk; mDkjp kWf;fg;gLfpd;whs;. Myghkh gpuNjrj;jpd; fth;duhd [hh;[; Nty]; vd;gth; 1962k; Mz;L xU gs;spapd; Eiothapypd; Kd; epd;W nfhz;L, fUj;j> nts;is khzth;fis gphpf;Fk; Nehf;Fld; fUj;j khzth;fis gs;spapy; nry;ytplkhy; jLj;j kw;nwhU Nftykhd rk;gtj;ij ,J ekf;F epidT+l;LfpwJ. ,jw;Fk; mjw;Fk; cs;s tpj;jpahrk; vd;dntdpy; me;j fUj;j khzth;fSf;fhf ,uf;fg;gLgth;fs; me;j mnkhpf;fhtpYk; kw;Wk; cyfpd; gy ghfq;fspYk; ,Ue;jdh;. fUj;j khzth;fis typikapd; %yk; gs;spapy; Eioar; nra;tjw;fhf [dhjpgjp nfd;db mnkhpf;f Njrpa ,uhZtg; gilia mDg;gpdhh;.  Mdhy; ,e;j K];ypk; khztpfSf;Nfh vthplkpUe;Jk; cjtpapy;iy. mth;fspd; nfhs;iff;F gpuhd;]pd; cs;NsAk; ntspNaAk; kpff; Fiwe;j gr;rhjhgNk fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. ,];yhk; vd;W nrhy;yg;gLk; vijg;gw;wpAk; vy;yh ,lj;jpYk; gutpapUf;Fk; jg;ggpg;uhaKk; gaKNk ,jw;F fhuzkhFk;.

khz;l;hPy; khehL vd;dpy; cz;lhf;fpa kpfg;ngUk; tpag;gpw;Fhpa Nfs;tp vd;dntdpy; : ]jhtpapDila my;yJ mtis tpkh;rpg;gth;fspd; fUj;Jf;fs; cz;ikahditfsh? MjhtJ> A+j kjk;> fpwp];jt kjk;> ,];yhkpa khh;f;fk; Mfpaitfs; ngz;fisg; gw;wp xNu khjphpahd fUj;Jf;fisj;jhd; nfhz;Ls;sdth my;yJ mitfs; tpj;jpahrkhditfsh? cz;ikapy; A+j kjKk; fpwp];jt kjKk; ngz;fis ,];yhj;ij tpl ey;y Kiwapy; elj;Jfpd;wdth? cz;ik vd;d?

,e;j fbdkhd Nfs;tpfSf;F tpilfis Njof; fz;L gpog;gJ mt;tsT vspjy;y. Kjypy; cs;s f~;lk; vd;dntdpy; xUth; ,e;j tpraj;ij mZFtjpy; epahakhdtuhfTk; xUjiyg;gl;r czh;T ,y;yhjtuhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; my;yJ Fiwe;j gl;rk; mt;thW ,Ug;gjw;F ngUkstpy; Kaw;rpf;fthtJ Ntz;Lk;.  ,ijj;jhd; ,];yhk; Nghjpf;fpd;wJ. vg;nghOJk; cz;ikiaNa Ngr Ntz;Lnkd jpUf;Fh;Md; K];ypk;fSf;F fl;lisapLfpwJ. jq;fSf;F kpf neUq;fpa cwtpdh;fs; mij ntWj;j NghjpYk; rhpNa.  NgRk; NghJ ePq;fs; ePjkhfNt NgRq;fs;>  mJ cq;fspd; ,eUq;fpa cwtpdh;fNshL rk;ge;jg;gl;ljhapDk; rhpNa. (6:152) ek;gpf;if nfhz;lth;fNs> ePjpia epiyehl;Ltjw;fhf my;yh`;tpw;fhf cWjpahd rhl;rpfshf Mfp tpLq;fs;. mJ cq;fSf;Nfh> cq;fspd; ngw;Nwhh;fSf;Nfh> cq;fspd; cwtpdh;fSf;Nfh my;yJ Vio gzf;fhuh;fSf;Nfh vjpuhdjhf ,Ue;jhYk; rhpNa.

kw;nwhU rpukk; vd;dntdpy; vLj;Jf; nfhz;l jiyg;gpd; gue;J tphpe;j jd;ikNaahFk;. MfNt fle;j rpy tUlq;fshf rhpahd tpilfis fz;L gpbg;gjw;fhf ehd; iggps;> vd;i]f;Nshg;gPbah Mg; nuyp[pad;> vd;i]f;Nshg;gPbah [_lha;f;fh Mfpatw;iw gbj;J tUfpNwd;.  NkYk; gy;NtW kjq;fspYs;s ngz;fspd; me;j];J gw;wp mwpQh; ngUkf;fs;> tpkh;rfh;fs; MfpNahh;fs; vOjpa gy;NtW Gj;jfq;fisAk; gbj;J tUfpNwd;. gpd;tUk; mj;jpahaq;fspy; fhzg;gLk; tpraq;fs; ahTk; vd;Dila jho;ikahd Muha;r;rpfspd; Kf;fpakhd fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fNsahFk;. Kw;wpYk; eLepiyNahL ,Ug;gjhf ehd; chpik nfhz;lhltpy;iy.  ,J vd;Dila rf;jpf;F mg;ghw;g;gl;lJ. ,e;j KO Muha;r;rpfspd; NghJk; ehd; jpUf;Fh;Md; Nghjpf;Fk; ePjpahfg; NgRjy; vd;gijNa filg;gpbf;f vd;dhy; Md tiu Kad;wpUf;fpNwd; vd;gij khj;jpuk; ehd; nrhy;ypf; nfhs;s Mirg;gLfpNwd;.

A+j kjj;ijNah my;yJ fpwp];jt kjj;ijNah ,opTgLj;Jtjw;fhf vd;Dila ,e;j Muha;r;rpia ehd; Nkw;nfhs;stpy;iy vd;gij ,e;j Kd;Diuapy; ehd; typAWj;jpf; $wpf; nfhs;s tpUk;GfpNwd;.  K];ypk;fs; vd;w Kiwapy; mitfs; ,uz;Lk; ,iwtdplkpUe;Nj te;Js;sd vd;W ehk; ek;GfpNwhk;.  ,NaRTk; %]hTk; ,iwtdpd; kpfg; ngUk; jPh;f;fjhprpfhshth; vd;gij ek;ghky; vtUk; K];ypkhf njhlh;e;jpUf;f KoahJ.   vd;Dila ,yl;rpanky;yhk; ,];yhj;jpd; cz;ikia epiy ehl;LtJk; kdpj ,dj;jpw;F ,iwtdhy; toq;fg;gl;l ,iwtdpd; ,Wjp J}jpw;F ngUik Nrh;g;gJk; Nkw;Fyfpw;F ehk; ntF fhyj;jpw;F Kd;NdNa nrhy;ypapUf;f Ntz;ba ,e;j nra;jpia nrhy;tJNkahFk;. ehd; nfhs;iffisg; gw;wpj;jhd; $WfpNwd;> mjhtJ ,e;j %d;W kjq;fspd; %yr; rl;l E}y;fspy; ngz;fSf;F nfhLf;fg;gl;bUf;fpw me;j];ijjhd; ehd; $Wfpd;NwNday;yhJ mk;kjq;fisg; gpd;gw;Wgth;fspd; eil Kiwfisg;gw;wp ehd; $wtpy;iy vd;gij typAWj;jpf; $wpf; nfhs;fpNwd;. MfNt jpUkiw Fh;Md;> `jPJ> iggps;> jy;%J NkYk; fpwp];jt kjf; nfhs;iffis tiuaWj;J mjw;F cUtk; mspg;gjpy; kpfg; ngUk; gq;F tfpj;j Gfo; ngw;w rh;r; ghjh;fspd; fUj;Jf;fs; MfpaitfNs Mjhuq;fshf rkh;g;gpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,J Vnddpy; xU kjj;jpd; cz;ik nfhs;iffis Ghpe;J nfhs;tjw;F me;j kjj;ij rhjhuzkhf gpd;gw;Wgth;fspd; nray;fis itj;J KbT nra;tJ ngUk;ghYk; rhpahditfshf ,Ug;gjpy;iy vd;gjdhNyahFk;. Vnddpy; mth;fspy; gyh; jq;fspd; fyhr;rhu gof;f tof;fq;fisNa kjnkd epidj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wdh;; kw;Wk; gyUf;F mth;fspd; kjf; fpue;jq;fs; vd;d $Wfpd;wd vd;gJ njhpatpy;iy; ,d;Dk; rpyh; mJ gw;W fpQ;rpw;Wk; ftdk; nrYj;Jtjpy;iy.

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         Vthspd; jtW

MZk; ngz;Zk; gpugQ;rkidj;ijAk; gilj;j ,iwtdhy; gilf;fg;gl;lth;fNs vd;w mbg;gil cz;ikia %d;W kjq;fSk; xg;Gf;nfhs;fpd;wd. ,Ug;gpDk;> Kjy; kdpjuhd Mjk;> Kjy; kDrpahd Vths; gilf;fg;gl;lTld; ele;j rk;gtq;fspypUe;Nj fUj;J NtWghLfs; Muk;gpj;J tpLfpd;wd.  Mjk;-Vths; gilf;fg;gl;lJ gw;wpa A+j-fpwp];jt nfhs;if iggps; Mjpahfkk; 2:4> 3:24 Mfpaitfspy; tptukhf $wg;gl;Ls;sJ.  jLf;fg;gl;l kuj;jpd; fdpfis cz;gjpypUe;J ,iwtd; ,UtiuANk jLj;jpUe;jhd;.  mij cz;Zk;gb ghk;G (-rhj;jhd;) Vthis J}z;baJ: mjw;fpzq;fpa mts; mf;fdpia jd;Dld; cz;ZkhW mts; Mjj;ij J}z;bdhs;. ,iwtd; ,e;j tuk;G kPwYf;fhf Mjj;ij fz;bj;j NghJ MjNkh ePh; vd;Dld; itj;jpUf;Fk; ngz;jhd; vdf;F mk;kuj;jpd; fdpia nfhLj;jhs;: ehd; mij cz;Nld; vd;W $wp gopaidj;ijAk; Vthspd; kPNj Nghl;lhh;.  ,jdhy; ,iwtd; Vthis Nehf;fp : ehd; Foe;ijg;Ngwpd; NghJ cd; Ntjidia kpfTk; mjpfkhf;FNtd;;: NtjidAlNdNa eP Foe;ij ngWtha;.  eP cd; fztid tpUk;Gtha;: mtd; cd;id MSthd; vd;whh;.

mth; Mjj;ij Nehf;fp : eP cd; kidtpapd; Ngr;ir Nfl;L kuj;jpd; fdpia cz;ljhy; .... cd; epkpj;jk; G+kp rgpf;fg;gl;ljhapUf;Fk;. cd; tho; ehl;fs; KOtJk; rpukkhd ciog;gpd; %yNk eP mjpypUe;J cz;gha;.  

Kjy; gilg;igg; gw;wpa ,];yhj;jpd; nfhs;if jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; gy ,lq;fspy; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. cjhuzkhf :

MjNk ePUk; ck;Kila kidtpAk; ,r;Rtdj;jpy; jq;fpapUq;fs;. ePq;fs; tpUk;gpa ,lj;jpy; tpUk;gpaijg; GrpAq;fs;.  Mdhy; ,k;kuj;jpd; mUfpy; neUq;fhjPh;fs;.  mt;thW neUq;fpdhy;> ePq;fs; ,UtUk; mf;fpukf;fhuh;fspy; Nrh;e;J tpLtPh;fs;. Mdhy; mtptpUtiu tpl;Lk; gu];guk; kiwe;jpUe;j mth;fspd; ntl;fj; jyq;fis mth;fSf;F ntspg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf i~j;jhd; mth;fspd; cs;sq;fspy; Cryhl;lj;ij Vw;gLj;jpdhd; : NkYk; ,t;thW $wpdhd; : cq;fs; ,iwtd; ,k;kuj;jpd; mUNf nry;yf; $lhJ vd;W cq;fs; ,UtiuAk; jLj;jw;fhd fhuzk;> ePq;fs; ,UtUk; thdth;fs; Mfptplf; $lhJ: my;yJ cq;fSf;F epue;ju tho;T fpilj;J tplf;$lhJ  vd;gjw;fhfj;jhd;.  NkYk;> mtd; mth;fsplk; rj;jpak; nra;J $wpdhd; : ehd; cq;fs; ,UtUf;Fk; cz;ikahd eyk; ehLgtdhNtd;. ,t;thW mt;tpUtiuAk; Vkhw;wp gbg;gbahf jd; trg;gLj;jpdhd;.  filrpapy; mth;fs; mk;kuj;jp(d; fdpap)idr; Ritj;jJk; mth;fspd; ntl;fj;jyq;fs; gu];guk; mth;fSf;F ntspg;gl;L tpl;ld.  GpwF> mth;fs; jq;fs; cly;fis Rtdj;jpd; ,iyfshy; %bf;nfhs;syhapdh;.  (mg;NghJ) mth;fspd; ,iwtd; mth;fis mioj;Jf; $wpdhd;: ,k;kuj;(jpd; mUfpy; nry;t)ij tpl;L cq;fspUtiuAk; ehd; jLf;ftpy;iyah? NkYk;> i~j;jhd; cq;fspd; gfpuq;fkhd giftd; vd;Wk; ehd; cq;fSf;Ff; $wtpy;iyah? mjw;F mth;fspUtk; $wpdhh;fs;: vq;fs; ,iwtNd vq;fSf;F ehq;fNs mf;fpukk; nra;J nfhz;Nlhk;.  vq;fis eP kd;dpj;J vq;fSf;Ff; fpUig nra;ahtpby; epr;rakhf ehq;fs; ,og;gpw;Fhpath;fshfp tpLNthk;. (7: 19-23)

gilg;igg; gw;wpa ,e;j ,U NtW tpguq;fisAk; ftdkhf ghh;j;jhy; mitfspy; rpy mbg;gilahd NtWghLfs; ,Ug;gJ njd;gLk;. jpUf;Fh;MNdh iggpSf;F khw;wkhf Mjk; Vths; Mfpa ,UtUNk Fw;wj;jpy; rk gq;fhspfs; vdf; $WfpwJ.  Mjhik Vths; me;j fdpia cz;Zk;gb J}z;bdhs; vd;Nwh Mjhkpw;F Kd;NdNa mts; me;jf; fdpia cz;lhs; vd;Nwh jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; vq;Fk; $wg;gltpy;iy.  jpUf;Fh;Midg; nghWj;j tiuapy; Vths; jPik nra;aj; J}z;LgtNsh> kaf;FgtNsh> Vkhw;WgtNsh my;y.  NkYk;> kfg;Ngwpd; NghJ Vw;gLk; Ntjidf;fhf Vths; Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;glf; $lhJ.  Vnddpy;> xUthpd; Fw;wj;jpw;fhf kw;wtiu ,iwtd; jz;bf;fkhl;lhd; vd jpUf;Fh;Md; $WfpwJ.  Mjhk; Vths; Mfpa ,UtUNk Fw;wkpioj;jdh;: gpd;G ,iwtdplk; ghtkd;dpg;Gf; Nfhhpdh;: ,iwtd; mth;fis kd;dpj;jhd;.

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         Vths; tpl;l nrhj;J

jPik Ghpaj;J}z;Lgts; vd;W iggpspy; Vthisg;gw;wp $wg;gl;bUg;gJ A+j-fpwp];jt kjj;jpYs;s ngz;fSf;F vjpuhf njhlh;e;J kpfTk; vjph;kiwahd tpisit Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ. vy;yh ngz;fSk; mth;fspd; jhahuhd VthsplkplkpUe;J mtSila Fw;wj;ijAk; fglj;jdj;ijAk; guk;giuahfg; ngw;Ws;sdh; vd;W ek;gg;gLfpd;wdh;.  mjdhy;> mth;fs; midtUk; ek;gj;jfhjth;fshf> xOf;f hPjpahf jho;e;jth;fshf> jPath;fshf fUjg;gLfpd;wdh;.  khjtplha;> fh;g;gk;> Foe;ijg;NgW Mfpaitfs; rgpf;fg;gl;l ngz;zpdj;jpd; vd;nwd;Wk; epiyj;jpUf;Fk; Fw;wj;jpd; jz;lidahfNt fUjg;gLfpd;wJ.   iggpspYs;s Vths; mtspd; ngz; thhpRfspd; kPJ ve;j tifahd vjph;kiwahd tpisTfis Vw;gLj;jpapUf;fpwhs; vd;gij czh;e;J nfhs;s ehk; fle;j fhyj;jpYs;s rpy kpfTk; Kf;fpakhd A+j-fpwp];jth;fspd; vOj;Jf;fis Nehl;lkpl Ntz;Lk;. gioa Vw;ghl;bypUe;J ehk; njhlq;FNthk;. Qhd ,yf;fpak; vd;W $wg;gLtjpy; fhzg;gLtjhtJ :

kuzj;ij tpl frg;ghdts; ngz;. mts; rpf;fitf;Fk; tiyahths;> mtspd; ,jaNkh fz;zpahFk; NkYk; mtspd; iffs; tpyq;FfshFk;.  ,iwtid kfpo;tpg;gtNdh mtis tpl;L jg;Gthd;> Mdhy; ghtpiaNah mts; jd; tiyf;Fs; rpf;fitj;JtpLths;... ehd; Njb Njb fhzKbahkypUf;Fk;NghJ> Mapuk; Nghpy; xU ePjpkpf;ftid fz;Lnfhz;Nld;.  Mdhy; ngz;fspNyh mth;fnsy;yhhpYk; $l xU ePjpkpf;f ngz;iz $l fhz Kbatpy;iy. (ECCLESIASTES 7:26-28)

fj;Njhypf;f iggpspy; fhzg;gLk; `Pg;U ,yf;fpaj;jpd; kw;nwhU ghfj;jpy; cs;sjhtJ:

ngz;zpd; jPikf;fUfpy; $l NtW ve;j jPikAk; tu KbahJ.... ghtk; ngz;zpNyNa Muk;gpj;jJ.  mtshNyNa ehnky;NyhUk; ,wg;gjhy; mtSf;F ed;wpfs;. (ECCLESIASTES 7:26-28)

Vthspd; ghtj;jpd; fhuzkhf ngz;fs; Nky; Rkj;jg;gl;l xd;gJ tifahd rhgq;fis A+j mwpQh;fs; gl;baypl;Ls;sdh; :

ngz;zpw;F ,iwtd; xd;gJ rhgq;fisAk; kuzj;ijAk; tpjpj;jhd;.

                          1.                                 1.       khj tplha; ,uj;jj;jpd; %ykhd Jauk;

                          2.                                 2.       gUtkilAk; NghJ ,uj;jk; tUtjdhy; Vw;gLk; Jauk;

                          3.                                 3.       fh;g;gj;jhy; Vw;gLk; Jd;gk;

                          4.                                 4.       Foe;ij ngWk; NghJ Vw;gLk; Jd;gk;

                          5.                                 5.       Foe;ijfis tsh;g;gjpy; Vw;gLk; Jd;gk;

                          6.                                 6.       Jf;fpj;jts; Nghy mts; jiyia %bapUj;jy;

                          7.                                 7.       jd; v[khddpw;F epiyahf gzp GhpAk; mbikiag; Nghy mts; jd; fhij Jisj;Jf; nfhs;Sjy;

                          8.                                 8.       mtspd; rhl;rp ek;gg;glhjpUj;jpy;

                          9.                                 9.       vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; gpwF ..... kuzk;.2

,g;NghJq; $l kjg;gpbg;Gs;s A+j Mz;fs; jq;fSila gpuhh;j;jidapd; NghJ vd;id ngz;zhf Mf;fhjpUe;j mfpyj;jpd; murdhd ,iwtNd J}atd; vd;W $Wfpd;wdh;.  ngz;fs; jq;fspd; gpuhh;j;jidapd; NghJ vd;id cd; tpUg;gj;jpw;Nfw;g gilj;j3   vd;W $wp ,iwtDf;F ed;wp nrYj;Jfpd;wdh;. gy A+j Gj;jfq;fspy; fhzg;gLk; kw;nwhU gpuhh;j;jid vd;dntdpy; me;epa kjj;jtdhf vd;idg; gilf;fhj ,iwtd; Gfog;gLthuhf; ngz;zhf vd;idg;  gilf;fhj ,iwtd; Gfog;gLthuhf;  vd;id mwptPddhf gilf;fhj ,iwtd; Gfog;gLthuhf.4 vd;gjhFk;.

iggpspDila Vthspd; gq;F A+j kjj;ij tpl fpwp];Jt kjj;jpy; kpfTk; mjpfk;.  mtSila ghtk; KO fpwp];jt kj ek;gpf;iff;Nf ikakhdjhFk; Vnddpy; ,t;Tyfpy; ,NaRtpd; gzpiag; gw;wpa fpwp];jt nfhs;iff;fhd fhuzNk Vths; ,iwtdpw;F fPo;gbahjJ vd;gjpdhNyahFk;. mts; ghtk; nra;jhs;, NkYk; mtis gpd;gw;Wk;gb MjikAk; J}z;bdhs;.  mjd; tpisthf, ,iwtd; mth;fspUtiuAk; Rtdj;jpypUe;J, mth;fspd; fhuzkhf rgpf;fg;gl;l, G+kpf;F ntspNaw;wpdhd;.  ,iwtdhy; kd;dpf;fg;glhj mth;fspd; ghtj;ij mth;fs; jq;fspd; re;jjpfSf;F tpl;Lr; nrd;wdh;, mjd; fhuzkhf vy;yh kdpjh;fSNk ghtj;jpy; gpwf;fpd;wdh;. kdpjh;fis ,e;j Mjp ghtj;jpypUe;J ePf;fp ghpRj;jg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf ,iwtd;, Njt Fkhud; vdf; fUjg;gLk;, ,NaRit rpYitapy; gyp nfhLf;f Ntz;bajpUe;jJ.

MfNt Vths; jd;Dila nrhe;j ghtj;jpw;Fk;, mtSila fztdpd; ghtj;jpw;Fk;, KO kdpj ,dj;jpd; Mjp ghtj;jpw;Fk; kw;Wk; Njt Fkhudpd; kuzj;jpw;Fk; fhuzkhths;.  NtW thh;j;ijfspy; nrhy;tjdhy;, xU ngz; jd;dpr;irahf nra;j nraypd; tpisthf KO kdpj ,dj;ijANk ghtKs;sjhf;fp tpl;lhs;.5  mtspd; ngz; kf;fspy; epiy vd;d?  mth;fs; mitisg; NghyNt mth;fSk; ghtpfshthh;fs; mth;fis ghtpfshfNt elj;jg;glNtz;Lk;.  Gdpj gTybahhpd; fLk; fz;ldj;ij NfSq;fs;;;;;;;

];jphPahdts; vy;yhtw;;wpYk; mlf;fKilatshapUe;J mikjNyhL fw;Wf;nfhs;sf;flts;. cgNjrk; gz;zTk;> GU~d;Nky; mjpfhuq; nrYj;jTk;> ];jphPahdtSf;F ehd; cj;juT nfhLf;fpwjpy;iy> mts; mikjyhapUf;f Ntz;Lk;.  vd;dj;jpdhnydpy;> KjyhtJ Mjhk; cUthf;fg;gl;lhd;> gpd;G Vths; cUthf;fg;gl;lhs;.  NkYk;> Mjhk; tq;rpf;fg;gltpy;iy. ];jphPahdtNs tq;rpf;fg;gl;L kPWjYf;F cl;gl;lhs;. (1 jpNkhj;jp 2:11-14)

Gdpj jh;j;jypad; jd;Dila kpfr; rpwe;j Nerj;jpw;Fhpa rNfhjhpfsplk; NgRk; NghJ mth;fis gTybahiu tpl fLikahf rhLfpwhh; :

ePq;fs; xt;nthUtUk; Vths; vd;gJ cq;fSf;F njhpahjh?  ,iwtdpd; jz;lid cq;fspd; ngz; ,dj;jpd; kPJ ,e;jf; fhyj;jpYk; ,Ue;J tUfpwJ.  MfNt mjw;fhd Fw;wKk; (,g;nghOJk;) ,Ue;Nj jPu Ntz;Lk;. ePq;fs; rhj;jhd; Eioaf;$ba Eiothapy;;: jLf;fg;gl;l kuj;ij jpwe;jth;fs; ePq;fs;; nja;tPf fl;lisia Kjd; Kjypy; kPwpath;fs; ePq;fs;; vtiuj; jhf;Ftjw;F rhj;jhd; NghJkhd typikaw;wtdhf ,Ue;jhNdh mtiuNa kaf;fpa ngz; ePq;fs;jhd;; flTspd; rhayhd kdpjidNa ePq;fs; mopj;jPh;fs;.  ePq;fs; tuk;G kPwpajhNyNa ,iwkfd; $l rhf Neh;e;jJ.6  

jd; Kd;Ndhh;fs; tpl;Lr; nrd;w (,j;jifa fUj;J) nrhj;jpw;F tpRthrkhdtuhf Gdpj Mf];bd; tpsq;fpdhh;. jd;Dila xU ez;gUf;F mth; ,t;thW vOJfpwhh;:

ngz; mts; kidtpahapUe;jhy; vd;d jhahf ,Ue;jhy; vd;d> mjpy; ve;j tpj;jpahrKkpy;iy. ghtj;jpw;F J}z;lf; $ba VthshfNt ve;jg; ngz;Zk; ,Uf;fpwhs; vd ehk; vr;rhpf;ifahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.... ngz;zpw;F gps;is ngWk; Ntiy ,y;yhtpl;lhy; mtshy; MZf;F NtW ve;jg; gaDk; ,Ug;gjhf vd;dhy; fhz Kbatpy;iy.4

,jw;F gy E}w;whz;LfSf;Fg; gpwFk; $l Gdpj jhky; mf;Adh]; ngz;fis FiwghLs;sth;fshfNt fUjpdhh;:

ngz;zpd; jdpg;gl;l Fzj;ijg; nghWj;j tiu mts; NjtbahshfNt ,Uf;fpwhs;. Vnddpy; MZila tpe;jpYs;s tPhpaKs;s rf;jp mtidg; Nghd;w KOikahd Miz cUthf;FfpwJ. Mdhy; me;j tPhpa rf;jpapy; Vw;g;gl;l VNjh FiwtpdhNyh my;yJ gytPdj;jhNyh my;yJ rpy ntspg;Gw nry;thf;fpd; tpistpdhNyhjhd; ngz; gpwf;fpwhs;.

,Wjpahf> Gfo; ngw;w rPh;jpUj;jthjpahd khh;bd; Y}jUk; ngz;fs; Foe;ij ngWtijj;jtpu mth;fshy; NtW ve;j ed;ikAk; ,Ug;gjhf fUjtpy;iy. ngz;fs; vj;jid mjpfkhd Foe;ijfs; ngw KbANkh mt;tsT Foe;ijfs; ngw Ntz;Lk;.  mjdhy; mth;fSf;F vt;tsT ghuJ}ukhd tpisT Vw;gl;lhYk; rhpNa.

mth;fs; (Foe;ij ngWtjpy;) ntWg;Gw;whYk; Vd; mjdhy; ,we;J Nghf Nehpl;lhYk; xd;Wk; nghpjy;y.  mth;fs; mjdhy; (rhf Nehpbd;) rhfl;Lk;.  Vnddpy; mjw;fhfj;jhd; (Foe;ij ngWtjw;fhfj;jhd;) mth;fs; ,Uf;fpwhh;fs;.

ghtk; nra;aj; J}z;ba Vths;jhd; ,th;fs; vd epidj;Jf; nfhz;Lk; ngz;fs; kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; ,opTf;Fs;shf;fg;gLfpd;wdh;. (Vthisg; gw;wpa) Mjpahfkj;jpd; fijf;F ed;wpfs;.  nkhj;jj;jpy; A+j-fpwp];jt kjj;jpy; ngz;fisg; gw;wpa fUj;Njhl;lk; VthSk; mtspd; ngz; re;jjpfSk; ghtk; nra;Ak; ,ay;Gs;sth;fs; vd;w ek;gpf;ifahy; tp~khf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

ngz;fisg; gw;wp jpUf;Fh;Md; vd;d nrhy;fpwJ vd ehk; ,g;NghJ ftdpg;Nghkhfpy;> ngz;fisg; gw;wpa ,];yhj;jpd; fUj;Njhl;lk; A+j-fpwp];jt kjj;jpYs;sij tpl kpfTk; mbg;gilahd NtWghl;ilf; nfhz;Ls;sJ vd;gij czh;e;J nfhs;syhk;.  mJ gw;wp jpUf;Fh;MNd Ngrl;Lk;:

Mz;fs; kw;Wk; ngz;fspy; vth;fs; K];ypk;fshfTk;> ek;gpf;ifahsh;fshfTk;> fPo;g;gBgth;fshfTk;> tha;ikahsh;fshfTk;> nghWikAilNahuhfTk;> jhdjh;kk; nra;gth;fshfTk;> Nehd;G Nehw;gth;fshfTk;> jq;fSila ntl;fj;jyq;fisg; ghJfhg;gth;fshfTk; ,d;Dk; my;yh`;it mjpfkhf epidT $Ugth;fshfTk; ,Uf;fpd;whh;fNsh> jpz;zkhf> mth;fSf;fhf my;yh`; kd;dpg;igAk; kfj;jhd $ypiAk; jahh; nra;J itj;Js;shd;. (33:35)

,iw ek;gpf;if nfhz;l Mz;fs;> ngz;fs; midtUk; xUtUf;nfhUth; Mjuthsh;fsha; ,Uf;fpd;whh;fs;.  mth;fs; ed;ik GhpAkhW VTfpwhh;fs;:  jPikapypUe;J jLf;fpwhh;fs;.  NkYk;> njhOifia epiyehl;Lfpwhh;fs;: [fhj;Jk; nfhLf;fpwhh;fs;.  NkYk;> my;yh`;Tf;Fk; mtDila J}jUf;Fk; fPo;g;gbfpwhh;fs;.  mj;jifNahh; kPJjhd; my;yh`;tpd; fUiz nghope;J nfhz;bUf;Fk;.  jpz;zkhf my;yh`; ahtw;iwAk; kpifj;jtdhfTk;> Ez;zwpthsdhfTk; ,Uf;fpwhd;. (9:71)

mth;fSila mjpgjp mth;fSf;F ,t;thW kWnkhop $wpdhd; : cq;fspy; vtUila ew;nraiyAk; ehd; tPzhf;fNt khl;Nld; - mth; MzhapDk; rhp> ngz;zhapDk; rhp - ePq;fs; xUth; kw;wthpypUe;J Njhd;wpa(xNu ,dj;j)th;fNs. (3:195)

jPa nray; Ghpe;jtDf;F mtd; nra;j jPikf;Nfw;gNt $yp fpilf;Fk;.  vth;fs; ew;nray; Ghpfpd;whh;fNsh mth;fs; MzhapDk;> ngz;zhapDk; rhp - ,iwek;gpf;if nfhz;ltuha; ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; - midtUk; Rtdk; nry;thh;fs;.  mq;F mth;fSf;Ff; fzf;fpd;wp czT toq;fg;gLk;.  (40:40)

MzhapDk; ngz;zhapDk; vth; ,iwek;gpf;if nfhz;ltuha; ,Uf;Fk; epiyapy; ew;nray; Ghpfpd;whNuh mtiu (,t;Tyfpy;) J}a tho;T thor; nra;Nthk;.  (kWikapYk;) mj;jifNahh;f;F mth;fspd; cd;djkhd nray;fSf;f Vw;g ehk; $yp toq;FNthk;. (16:97)

ngz;fisg; gw;wpa jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; fz;Nzhl;lk; Mz;fspypUe;J khWgl;ljy;y vd;gJ njspT.  mth;fs; ,UtUk; ,iwtdpd; gilg;Gf;fNs. mth;fspd; ug;ig tzq;FtJk;, ew;nray;fs; GhptJk;, jPa nray;fis jtph;g;gJTNk G+kpapy; mth;fspd; cd;dj ,yl;rpakhFk;.  mth;fs; ,ij ve;j mstpw;F rhpahf epiwNtw;Wfpwhh;fs; vd;gij itj;Nj kjpg;gplg;gLthh;fs;. ngz; rhj;jhdpd; Eiothapy; vd;Nwh my;yJ mts; ,ay;gpNyNa Vkhw;Wf;fhhp vd;Nwh jpUf;Fh;Md; xU NghJk; Fwpg;gpltpy;iy. NkYk; Mz; ,iwtdpd; rhay; vd;W jpUf;Fh;Md; xU NghJk; Fwpg;gpltpy;iy: Mz;fs; ngz;fs; midtUk; ,iwtdpd; gilg;Gf;fNs. mt;tsTjhd;.  jpUf;Fh;Midg; nghWj;jtiu ,t;Tyfpy; ngz;fspd; gq;fspg;G Foe;ij ngWtNjhL epd;W tpLtjy;y.  kw;w Mz;fs; ve;j mstpw;F ew;fhhpaq;fs; nra;a Ntz;LNkh mJ NghyNt mth;fSk; nra;a Ntz;Lk;.  Neh;ikahd ngz;fNs ,Ue;jjpy;iy vd;W jpUf;Fh;Md; xUNghJk; nrhd;djpy;iy.  mjw;F khwhf> fd;dp khpahs;> gph;mTdpd; kidtp Nghd;wth;fspd; cah;e;j Kd; khjphpfis vy;yh ek;gpf;ifahsh;fSk;, ngz;fSk; Mz;fSk;, gpd;gw;w Ntz;Lk; vd jpUf;Fh;Md; fl;lisapLfpwJ:

gph;mt;Dila kidtpia my;yh`; ,iw ek;gpf;ifahsh;fSf;fhd cjhuzkhf vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfpd;whd;.  xU NghJ mth; ,iwQ;rpdhh;: vd; mjpgjpNa vdf;fhf cd;dplj;jpy; - Rtdj;jpy; Xh; ,y;yj;ij mikj;Jj; jUthahf!  NkYk;> |gph;mt;id tpl;Lk; mtDila nraiy tpl;Lk; vd;idf; fhg;ghw;Wthahf]  NkYk; nfhLik GhpAk; r%fj;jpypUe;J vdf;F tpLjiy mspg;ghahf]  NkYk;, ,k;uhdpd; kfs; kh;aj;ij (kw;nwhU) cjhuzkhf vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfpwhd;: mth; jk;Kila ntl;fj;jyj;ijg; ghJfhj;jhh;.  GpwF> ehk; ek;kplkpUe;J &i` mtUs; CjpNdhk;.  NkYk; mth; jk;Kila mjpgjpapd; mwpTiufisAk; mtDila Ntjq;fisAk; nka;g;gLj;jpdhh;. NkYk;> mth; fPo;g;gbe;J tho;Nthhpy; xUtuhAk; ,Ue;jhh;. (66 11-12)

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         ,optpw;Fhpa ngz; kf;fs;

cz;ikapy;> ngz; Foe;ijiag; gw;wpa iggps;> jpUf; Fh;Md; Mfpatw;wpd; fz;Nzhl;lhq;fSf;fpilNaAs;s tpj;jpahrq;fs; ngz; Foe;ij gpwe;jpjpypUe;Nj njhlq;fp tpLfpwJ. cjhuzkhf> ngz; Foe;ij gpwe;J tpl;lhy; jha; J}a;ikailAk; fhyk; Mz; Foe;ijf;F mDrhpf;Fk; fhyj;ijg; Nghy; ,U klq;fhFk; vd iggps; $WfpwJ. (Nytpauhfkk; 12: 2-5). fj;Njhypf;f iggps; ntspg;gilahfNt $WfpwJ:

ngz; Foe;ijapd; gpwg;G e~;lNkahFk;. (Ecclesiasticus 22:3)

,e;j mjph;r;rpA+l;Lk; fUj;jpw;F vjpuhf Mz; Foe;ij Gfog;gLfpd;whd;.

jd; kfdpw;F fy;tp Gfl;Lgtd; vjphpiaNa nghwhikg;gl itj;j fhhpaj;ij nra;jtdhthd;. (Ecclesiasticus 30:3)

,dj;ij tpUj;jpailar; nra;Ak; nghUl;L re;jjpfis ngUf;Fk; nraiy Mz;fSf;F A+j mwpQh;fs; fl;lhakhf;fpdhh;fs;;. Mdhy; mNj Neuj;jpy; Mz; Foe;ijfs;jhd; cah;e;jth;fs; vd;gij mth;fs; kiwf;ftpy;iy.  vth;fSf;F Mz; Foe;ijfs; ,Uf;fpd;wdNth mJ mth;fSf;F ey;yjhFk;. Mdhy; vth;fSf;F ngz; Foe;ijfs; ,Uf;fpd;wNth mJ mth;fSf;F nfl;ljhFk;. Mz; Foe;ij gpwg;gpd; NghJ vy;NyhUk; kfpo;fpwhh;fs;... ngz; Foe;ij gpwf;Fk; NghJ vy;NyhUk; Jf;fkhf ,Uf;fpwhh;fs;, xU Mz; Foe;ij ,t;Tyfpw;F tUk; NghJ rkhjhdk; ,t;Tyfpw;F tUfpwJ .... ngz; Foe;ij ,t;Tyfpw;F tUk;NghJ xd;Wk; tUtjpy;iy.7

cd; kfs; jhd;Njhd;wpj;jdkhf ,Uf;fpwhsh?  cd; vjphpfs; cd;idg; ghh;j;J ,fo;e;J rphpf;Fk;gb> efuj;jpd; gpuhjhd Ngr;rhf mts; Mfp> vy;NyhUk; mtisg;gw;wp FRFRj;J NgRk; tifapy; mts; ele;J cd;id mtkhkg;gLj;jplhkypUf;Fk; tifapy; eP mtis vg;nghOJk; fz;fhzpj;jpU. (Ecclesiasticus 42: 11)

jhd;Njhd;wpj;jdkhf ,Uf;Fk; kfis fLk; fl;Lg;ghl;by; itj;jpU ,y;iyNay; mtSf;F fpilf;Fk; re;jh;g;gj;ij jtwhf gad;gLj;jp tpLths;.  mtspd; ntl;fkw;w fz;fspd; Nky; xU ftdk; itj;jpU.  mts; cd;id mtkhdg;gLj;jpAk; tpLthsh vd;W tpae;J (,ij nra;ahky;) ,Uf;fhNj.  (Ecclesiasticus 26:10-11)

ngz;fis ,optpd; Cw;whf fUJk; ,J Nghd;w vz;zk;jhd; ,];yhj;jpw;F Ke;jpa mNugpah;fis ngz; nfhiy Ghpaj; J}z;baJ.  jpUf;Fh;Md; ,e;j Nkhrkhd nraiy fLikahf fz;bf;fpwJ : 

,th;fspy; xUtUf;F ngz; Foe;ij (gpwe;jpUg;gJ) gw;wp ew;nra;jp nrhy;yg;gl;lhy; mtuJ Kfj;jpy; fUik ft;tpf; nfhs;fpd;wJ.  Jf;fj;jhy; mth; njhz;il milj;Jf; nfhs;fpd;wJ. ,e;jf; Nfytkhd nra;jp fpilj;J tpl;lNj vd;gjw;fhf ,dp ahh; Kfj;jpYk; tpopf;ff;$lhJ vd;W kf;fis tpl;L xJq;fpr; nry;fpd;whh;.  mtkhdg;gl;Lf;nfhz;L mg;ngz; Foe;ijia itj;jpUg;gjh my;yJ mjid kz;zpy; Gijj;J tpLtjh vd;W rpe;jpf;fpd;whh; - ghUq;fs;! ,iwtidg; gw;wp ,th;fs; vLj;j KbT vj;jid nfl;lJ. (16:59)

,e;jr; nraiy fz;bg;gjw;fhf jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; cgNahfpf;fg;gl;Ls;s (16:59> 43:17> 81:8-9) RLk; thh;j;ijg; gpuNahfq;fspd; rf;jp ,y;iynad;why; ,e;jf; nfhba Fw;wk; mNugpahtpy; xU NghJk; epWj;jpapUf;fg;glkhl;lhJ vd;gij epidtpy; itf;f Ntz;Lk;. NkYk;> MZf;Fk; ngz;zpw;FkpilNa ve;j tpj;jpahrj;ijAk; jpUf;Fh;Md; fw;gpj;jpltpy;iy. iggpspy; $wg;gl;bUg;gjw;F vjpuhf> jpUf;Fh;Md; MZila gpwg;igg; NghyNt ngz;zpd; gpwg;Gk; ,iwtdpd; nfhil> mUs; vd;Wjhd; fUJfpwJ. ngz; Foe;ij nfhilia jpUf;Fh;Md; Kjypy; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ :

my;yh`; G+kp kw;Wk; thdq;fSila Ml;rpapd; chpikahsdhthd;: jhd; ehLfpd;wtw;iwg; gilf;fpd;whd;: jhd; ehLNthUf;Fg; ngz; kf;fis toq;Ffpd;whd;: jhd; ehLNthUf;F Mz; kf;fis toq;Ffpd;whd;. (42:49)

Muk;g fl;lj;jpypUe;j K];ypk; rKjhaj;jpy; epytpapUe;j ngz; rpRf;nfhiyia Kw;whf> Vd; mJ gw;wpa jlaq;fisf; $l mopj;njhopf;Fk; Nehf;Fld; egp (]y;) mth;fs; ngz; Foe;ij nfhLf;fg;gl;L mUs;Ghpag;gl;lth;fSf;F mg;ngz; Foe;ijfis md;ghd Kiwapy; tsh;j;jhy; ,iwtdplj;jpy; kpfg; ngUk; ew;$yp ngWthh;fs; vd;W thf;FWjpaspj;jhh;fs;:

vth; ngz; Foe;ijfis tsh;g;gjpy; <Lgl;L> mth;fis ,uf;fj;Jld; elj;jpdhy; mg; ngz; Foe;ijfs; euf ,eUg;gpype;J mtiu fhg;gth;fshf Mfp tpLthh;fs;. vd egp (]y;) mth;fs; $wpdhh;fs;. (Gfhhp> K];ypk;)

vth;fs; ,U ngz;fis gUtkilAk; tiu ey;y Kiwapy; tsh;f;fpd;whh;fNsh mtUk; ehDk; kWik ehspy; ,J Nghd;W tUNthk; vd;W $wp egp (]y;) mth;fs; jq;fspd; ,U tpuy;fis Nrh;j;Jf; fhl;bdhh;fs;. (K];ypk;)

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         ngz; fy;tp

ngz;fisg; gw;wpa iggps;-jpUf;Fh;Md; Mfpatw;wpw;fpilNa cs;s nfhs;if tpj;jpahrq;fs; Gjpjhf gpwe;j ngz; rpR gw;wpaNjhL khj;jpuk; epd;W tpltpy;iy mijAk; jhz;b mJ Mokhf nry;fpwJ. jd; kjj;ij gw;wp fw;f Kaw;rpf;Fk; xU ngz;zpd; epiyik gw;wp xg;gpl;Lg; ghh;f;fyhk;.  A+j kjj;jpd; ,jaNk jt;uhj; -fl;lisfs; (-Commandments) MFk;.  MdhYk; ngz;fs; jt;uhj;ij thrpg;gjpypUe;J tpyf;fg;gLfpwhh;fs; vd;W jy;%J $WfpwJ. rpy A+j kj FUkhh;fs; cWjpahf mwptpj;Js;sjhtJ ngz;fSf;F jt;uhj;jpd; thh;j;ijfis fw;Wf; nfhLg;gij tpl mij ,eUg;gpy; Nghl;L mopg;gJ ey;yJ. ahh; ahh; jd; kfSf;F jt;uhj;ij fw;Wf; nfhLf;fpwhNdh mtd; mtSf;F mrpq;fj;ijNa fw;Wf; nfhLf;fpwhd;.8

Gjpa Vw;ghl;by; gTybahhpd; ,J gw;wpa fz;Nzhl;lk; $l gpufhrdkhdjhf ,y;iy:

rigfspy; cq;fs; ];jphPfs; NgrhkypUf;ff;flth;fs;:  NgRk;gbf;F mth;fSf;F cj;jutpy;iy:  mth;fs; mkh;e;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;:  NtjKk; mg;gbNa nrhy;YfpwJ.  mth;fs; xU fhhpaj;ijf; fw;Wf; nfhs;s tpUk;gpdhy;> tPl;bNy jq;fs; GU~hplj;jpy; tprhhpf;ff;flth;fs;: ];jphPfs; rigapNy NgRfpwJ mNahf;fpakhapUf;FNk. (1 nfhhpe;jpah; 14:34-35)

ngz; Ngr mDkjpf;fg;gltpy;iynad;why; vt;thW fw;f KbAk;?  mts; KO mbikj;jdj;jpNyNa ,Ue;jhy; mts; tsh;r;rp vt;thW mwpTg;G+h;tkhf mikAk;? mts; jfty; ngWtjw;Fhpa xNu khh;f;fk; mtspd; fztdhf khj;jpuk; ,Ue;jhy; mtspd; rpe;jid thdj;ij vt;thW mts; tphptilar; nra;a KbAk;?

,Ugf;fKk; rkePjpNahL ,Uf;Fk; tifapy; ,J gw;wp jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; epiy NtWgl;Ls;sjh vd;Wk; ehk; Nfl;f Ntz;Lk;.  jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; $wg;gl;Ls;s xU rpwpa rk;gtNk ,J gw;wp mjDila epiyia RUf;fkhf tpsf;f NghJkhdJ. fTyh vd;w K];ypk; ngz;kzpapd; fzth; xU NghJ Nfhgj;jpy; mtsplk; eP vd; jhapd; KJifg; Nghd;wts; vd;W $wp tpLfpwhd;.   ,J jpUkzf; flikfspypUe;J xU fztid tpLtpf;ff; $ba Mdhy; kidtpia fztdpd; tPl;bypUe;J ntspNawpr; nry;yNth my;yJ NtW xUtid kzf;fNth mDkjpf;fhj xU tifahd tpth`uj;J nrhy;yhf mugpfshy; fUjg;gl;lJ. jd; fztd; ,t;thW nrhy;yf;Nfl;l fTyh kpfTk; Jf;ffukhfp tpl;lhs;.  jd; epiyikiaf; $wp thjhl egp (]y;) mth;fsplNk mts; Neuhf Ngha; tpl;lhs;.  ,jw;F NtW top njhpahjjhy; mts; nghWikiaf; ifahs Ntz;Lnkd egp (]y;) mth;fs; $wpdhh;fs;. epWj;jp itf;fg;gl;l jd; jpUkz ge;jj;ij fhg;gjw;fhf fTyh egp (]y;) mth;fsplk; njhlh;e;J thjhbf; nfhz;bUe;jhs;.  me;jr; rkaj;jpy;jhd; jpUf;Fh;Md; ,jpy; jiyapl;lJ:  fTyhtpd; thjk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.  ,e;j nfl;l gof;fj;ij nja;tPf jPh;g;G mopj;njhopj;J tpl;lJ. ,e;jr; rk;gtk; njhlh;e;J xU KO mj;jpahaNk my; K[hjpyh my;yJ thjhLk; ngz; vd;W ngahplg;gl;lJ:

jd;Dila fzth; tp~aj;jpy; ck;kplk; tpthjpj;Jf; nfhz;Lk;> my;yh`;tplj;jpy; Kiwapl;Lf; nfhz;Lk; ,Uf;fpd;w ngz;zpd; nrhy;iyj; jpz;zkhf my;yh`; Nfl;Lf;nfhz;lhd;. epr;rakhf my;yh`; midj;ijAk; Nfl;gtDk; ghh;g;gtDk; Mthd; (58:1)

jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; nfhs;ifiag; nghWj;jtiu xU ngz; ,];yhj;jpd; egp (]y;) mth;fsplNk Neubahf thjhLk; chpik ngw;wpUf;fpwhs;.  nksdkhapUf;Fk;gb mtisr; nrhy;y vtUf;Fk; chpik fpilahJ.  rl;lk;> kjk; Mfpatw;iw fw;gjw;F mtspd; fztid khj;jpuk; rhh;e;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w ve;j fl;Lg;ghLk; fpilahJ.

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         J}a;ikaw;w jPl;Lg;gl;l ngz;

khjtplha; tUk; ngz;fs; rk;ge;jkhfTs;s A+j rl;lq;fSk; fl;Lg;ghLfSk; kpfTk; fLikahdit.  khjtplha; te;j ngz;iz gioa Vw;ghL J}a;ikaw;wtshfTk; jPl;Lg;gl;ltshfTk; fUJfpwJ.  NkYk; mtspd; jPl;L kw;wth;fisAk; njhw;wpf;nfhs;fpwJ. mts; njhLk; ve;jg; nghUSk; ve;j kdpjUk;  md;iwa KO jpdKk; jPl;Lg;gl;litfshfp tpLfpd;wd.

R+jf];jphP jd; rhPuj;jpYs;s cjpu Cwypdpkpj;jk; VO ehs; jd; tpyf;fj;jpy; ,Uf;ff;flts;:  mtisj; njhLfpwtd; vtDk; rhaq;fhyk; kl;Lk; jPl;Lg;gl;bUg;ghdhf. mts; tpyf;fyhapUf;ifapy; vjpd; Nky; gLj;Jf;nfhs;SfpwhNsh vjpd; Nky; cl;fhUfpwhNsh mnjy;yhk; jPl;lhapUf;Fk;.  mts; gLf;ifiaj; njhLfpwtd; vtDk; jd; t];jpuq;fisj; Njha;j;J jz;zPhpy; KOfp rhaq;fhyk; kl;Lk; jPl;Lg;gl;bUg;ghdhf.  mts; cl;fhh;e;j kiziaj; njhLfpwtd; vtDk; jd; t];jpuq;fisj; Njha;j;J> jz;zPhpy; KOfp rhaq;fhyk; kl;Lk; jPl;Lg;gl;bUg;ghdhf.  mts; gLf;ifapd; NkyhfpYk;> mts; cl;fhh;e;j kizapd; NkyhfpYk; ,Ue;j vijahfpYk; njhl;ltd; rhaq;fhyk;kl;Lk; jPl;Lg;gl;bUg;ghdhf. (Nytpauhfkk; 15: 19-23).

mtsplk; ,e;j mRj;jg;gLj;Jk; jd;ik ,ay;ghfNt ,Ug;gjdhy; mtSldhd njhlh;ig jtph;j;Jf; nfhs;Sk; Nehf;Fld; rpy Neuq;fspy; khjtplha;g; ngz; js;sp itf;fg;gl;lhs;. mRj;jkhd me;j fhyk; KOtJNk mts; mRj;jkhdth;fspd; tPL vd;wiof;fg;gl;l tPl;bw;F mDg;gg;gl;lhs;.  khjtplha;g; ngz;NzhL ve;j njhlh;gpy;yhtpl;lhYk; $l mts; kpf Mgj;jhdts; vd jy;%J $WfpwJ :

ek;Kila mwpQh;fs; ekf;F fw;gpj;Js;sjhtJ ... xU khjtplha;g; ngz; ,U Mz;fSf;fpilNa fle;J nry;thshdhy;> mf;fhyk; mtspd; khjhtplha;f; fhyj;jpd; Muk;g ehl;fshf ,Ue;jhy; mts; mth;fspy; xUtiu (,jdhy;) nfhd;W tpLths;.  mjd; ,Wjp ehl;fspy; mts; nrd;whshdhy; mth;fSf;fpilNa gpzf;if cz;lhf;fp tpLths; (nPes. 111a.) 

khjtplha; fhyj;jpypUf;Fk; jd; kidtpapd; fhyb kz;zpd; %yk; $l xUtd; jPl;lhfp tpl;lhy; mtd; Myaj;jpy; Eioa jil tpjpf;fg;gl;lhd;.  Mya FUtpd; tPl;bYs;s mthpd; kidtpNah> kfNsh> jhNah $l khjtplha; fhyj;jpypUe;jhy; mtd; Myaj;jpy; mtd; flikia nra;a KbahJ.10  A+jg; ngz;fs; ,d;wsTk; $l khjtplhia rhgk; vd;Nw Fwpg;gpLfpd;whh;fs;.11

khjtplha; te;Js;s ngz; ve;j tpjkhd njhw;Wk; mRj;jj;ijAk; jd;Ds; nfhz;bUg;gjhf ,];yhk; $wtpy;iy.  mts; jPz;lj;jfhjtNsh my;yJ rgpf;fg;gl;ltNsh my;y.  mts; jd;Dila jpdrhp tho;f;ifia tof;fk;Nghy; Mdhy; xNu xU fl;Lg;ghl;Lld; elj;Jfpwhs;: mjhtJ mts; jpUkzkhdtshapUe;jhy; mts; fztDld; clYwT nfhs;sf;$lhJ.  kw;w vy;yh cly; njhlh;GfSk; mDkjpf;fg;gl;litNa.  khjtplha; Vw;gLk; fhy fl;lj;jpy; ngz; njhOtJ Nehd;G itg;gJ Nghd;witfspypUe;J tpyf;fspf;fg;gl;bUf;fpwhs;.

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         rhl;rp $Wjy;

jpUf;Fh;MDk; iggpSk; NtWgLk; kw;nwhU tprak; ngz;fs; rhl;rp $Wtijg; gw;wpNaahFk;.  gz tptfhuq;fs; rk;ge;jg;gl;l tpraq;fspy; ,uz;L Mz;fSila rhl;rpfisNah my;yJ xU Mz; kw;Wk; ,uz;L ngz;fspd; rhl;rpfisAk; ngw Ntz;Lnkd;w rl;lj;ij ek;gpf;ifahsh;fs; Nky; jpUf;Fh;Md; tpjpj;Js;sJ vd;gJ cz;ik (2:282)  ,Ug;gpDk;> kw;w re;jh;g;gq;fspy; xU ngz;zpd; rhl;rpia Mzpd; rhl;rpf;F rkkhf Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;LnkdTk; jpUf;Fh;Md; fl;lilapl;Ls;sJ vd;gJk; cz;ik.  cz;ikapy;> ngz;zpd; rhl;rpak; Mzpd; rhl;rpaj;ijNa tYtpy;yhjjhff; $l Mf;fp tpLk;. xUtd; jd; kidtpapd; kPJ XOf;ff; Nfl;Lf; Fw;wj;ij rhl;bdhy;> mtd; kidtpapd; Fw;wj;jpw;F Mjuhkhf Ie;J Kiw rj;jpak; nra;a Ntz;Lnkd jpUf;Fh;Md; fl;lisapLfpd;wJ. kidtp mij kWj;J Ie;J Kiw rj;jpak; nra;jhy; mts; Fw;wthspahf fUjg;glkhl;lhs; NkYk; ,e;j ,uz;by; vJ ele;jhYk; jpUkzge;jk; ,y;yhkyhf;fg;gLfpwJ. (24: 6-11)

kw;nwhU Gwk;> A+j rKjhaj;jpy; ngz;fs; rhl;rp nrhy;yNt mDkjpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy.12 Vths; nra;j ghtj;jpdhy; mts; kPJ tpOe;j xd;gJ tifahd rhgq;fspy; rhl;rp nrhy;y KbahjJk; xd;W vd;W A+j mwpQh;fs; $Wfpd;wdh;.  (Vths; tpl;l nrhj;J vd;w mj;jpahak; fhz;f).  ,];NuypYs;s A+j kj ePjp kd;wq;fspy; ,d;wsTk; ngz;fs; rhl;rp nrhy;y mDkjpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. ngz;fs; Vd; rhl;rp nrhy;y KbahJ vd;gjw;F Mg;uh`hkpd; kidtpahd rhuh ngha; nrhd;djhf Mjpahfkk; 18:9-16y; gjpag;gl;bUg;gij fhuzkhf Rl;bf;fhl;b A+j mwpQh;fs; epahag;gLj;Jfpd;wdh;. rhl;rp nrhy;tjw;F jFjpaw;wtshf ngz; Mfp tpLfpwhs; vd;gjw;F Mjhukhf ,e;j rk;gtj;ij A+j mwpQh;fs; $Wfpd;wdh;.  Mjpahfkk; 18:9-16y; nrhy;yg;gl;l ,e;jf; fij jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; xd;wpw;F mjpfkhd jlit  (11:69-74,51:24-30) nrhy;yg;gl;bUe;Jk; rhuh ngha; nrhd;djhf $wg;gLk; me;jr; rk;gtk; jtph;f;fg;gl;bUg;gJ ,q;F ftdpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.  fle;j E}w;whz;L tiu fpwp];jt Nkw;FyF ngz;fis kj kw;Wk; rptpy; tptfhuq;fs; ,uz;bYNk rhl;rp nrhy;tjpypUe;J jLj;J te;jJ.

iggpspd;gb> xUtd; jd; kidtpia xOf;ff; Nfl;L Fw;wk; rhl;bdhy;> mjw;F vjpuhd mtspd; rhl;rp xU NghJk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;glkhl;lhJ. Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;l kidtp kjr; Nrhjidf;Fl;gLj;jg;gl;lhs;.  kidtpapd; Fw;wj;ijNah my;yJ ghpRj;jj;jd;ikiaNah ep&gpf;Fk; vd ek;gg;gLk; ,e;jr; Nrhjidapy;> kidtp rpf;fyhd mtkhdfukhd rlq;Ffis vjph;nfhs;fpwhs;. (vz;zhfkk; 5:11-31)  ,e;jr; Nrhjidf;Fg;gpd; mts; Fw;wthspnad fhzg;gl;lhy; mts; kuz jz;lid tpjpf;fg;gLths;.  mt;thW mtspy; ve;j Fw;wKk; fhzg;glhtpl;lhy; mts; fztid vJTk; nra;ag;glkhl;lhJ.

,J jtpu> xUtd; xU ngz;id kze;j gpwF mts; fd;dpay;y vd;W mtd; Fw;wq;rhl;bdhy;> mtspd; nrhe;j rhl;rpak; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;glkhl;lhJ.  mtspd; ngw;Nwhh;fs; efuj;J nghpNahh;fspd; Kd;dpiyapy; mtspd; fd;dpj;jd;ikf;fhd Mjhuj;ij nfhz;L tu Ntz;Lk;.  mtspd; ngw;Nwhh;fshy; mtspd; ghpRj;jj; jd;ikia ep&gpf;f Kbahtpby; mts; mtspd; je;ijapd; tPl;bd; Kd;dpiyapNyNa fy;yhy; vwpe;J nfhy;yg;gLths;.  mtspd; ngw;Nwhh;fs; mtspd; fd;dpj;jd;ikia ep&gpj;J tpl;lhy;> mtspd; fztDf;F E}W nts;spg;gzk; mguhjkhf tpjpf;fg;gLk; NkYk; mtd; jhd; caph;thOk; tiu mtdpd; kidtpia tpth`uj;J nra;a KbahJ.

xU ];jphPia tpthfk;gz;zpd xUtd; mtsplj;jpy; gpuNtfrpj;jgpd;G mtis ntWj;J ehd; ,e;j ];jphPia tpthfk; gz;zp> mtsplj;jpy; Nrh;e;jNghJ fd;dpikiaf; fhztpy;iy vd;W mts; Nky; Mtyhjpahd tpNr~q;fisr; rhw;wp mtSf;F mtJ}W cz;lhf;fpdhy;;  me;j ];jphPapd; jfg;gDk; mts; jhAk; mtSila fd;dpikapd; milahsj;ijg; gl;lzj;J thrypYs;s %g;ghplj;jpy; (-jiythplj;jpy;) nfhz;Ltuf;flth;fs;.  mq;Nf me;jg; ngz;zpd; jfg;gd;; vd; kfis ,e;j kdpjDf;F kidtpahff; nfhLj;Njd;. ,td; mtis ntWj;J> ehd; cd; kfsplj;jpy; fd;dpikiaf; fhztpy;iyntd;W Mtyhjpahd tpNr~q;fis mts;Nky; rhw;Wfpwhd;:  vd; kfSila fd;dpikapd; milahsk; ,q;Nf ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W %g;ghplj;jpy; nrhy;thdhf.  gpd;G gl;lzj;J %g;gUf;F (-jiytUf;F) Kd;ghf me;j t];jpuj;ij tphpf;ff;flth;fs;.  mg;nghOJ me;jg; gl;zj;J %g;gh; (-jiyth;) me;j kdpjidg; gpbj;J> mtidj; jz;bj;J mtd; ,];uNtypy; xU fd;dpia mtJ}}W gz;zpdjpdhNy> mtd; ifapy; E}W nts;spf;fhir mguhjkhf thq;fp ngz;zpd; jfg;gDf;Ff; nfhLf;ff;flth;fs;;.  mtNsh mtDf;F kidtpahapUf;fNtz;Lk;  mtd; jd; [PtDs;sTk; mtisj; js;sptplf;$lhJ.  me;jg; ngz;zplj;jpy; fd;dpik fhzg;gltpy;iynad;Dk; rq;fjp nka;g;gl;lNjahdhy;>  me;jg; ngz;iz mts; jfg;gDila tPl;LthrYf;F Kd;ghff; nfhz;L te;J> mts; ,];uNtypy; kjpnfl;l fhhpaj;ijr; nra;J jd; jfg;gd; tPl;bNy Ntrpj;jdk; gz;zpdgbapdhNy> mtSila gl;lzj;J kdpjh; mtisf; fy;nywpe;J nfhy;yf;flth;fs;; ,g;gbNa jPika cd; eLtpypUe;J tpyf;ff;fltha;. (cghfkk; 22:13-21)

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         fs;s cwT (tpgrhuk;)

fs;s cwit ghtkhdjhf vy;yh kjKk; fUJfpd;wd.  tpgr;rhuk; nra;j Mz;> ngz;  Mfpa ,UtUNk kuz jz;lidf;Fs;shf;fg;gl Ntz;Lnkd iggps; jPh;g;G $WfpwJ. (Nytpauhfkk; 20:10). ,];yhKk; tpgr;rhuk; nra;j MizAk; ngz;izAk;  rkkhf jz;bf;fpwJ. ,Ug;gpDk;> tpgr;rhuj;jpw;fhd jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; tiuaiwAk; iggpspd; tiuaiwAk; tpj;jpahrg;gLfpd;wJ. jpUf;Fh;Midg; nghWj;j tiuapy; tpgr;rhuk; vd;gJ jpUkzkhd MNzh my;yJ jpUkzkhd ngz;Nzh jpUkzge;jj;jpw;F mg;ghy; fs;s njhlh;G nfhs;tJ vd;gjhFk;. Mdhy; iggpNsh kzkhd ngz; fs;s cwT nfhs;tij khj;jpuk; tpgr;rhukhf fUJfpd;wJ. (Nytpauhfkk; 20:10> cghfkkk; 22:22> gonkhopfs; 6:20> 7:27)

GU~Df;F tpthfk;gz;zg;gl;l ];jphPNahl xUtd; radpf;ff; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;lhy;> me;j ];jphPNahl radpj;j kdpjDk; me;j ];jphPAk; ,UtUk; rhfNtz;Lk;: ,g;gbNa jPikia ,];uNtypypUe;J tpyf;ff;fltha;.(cghfkk; 22:22)

xUtd; gpwDila kidtpNahl tpgrhuk; nra;jhy;> gpwd; kidtpNahl tpgrhuk; nra;j me;j tpgrhuDk; me;j tpgrhhpAk; nfhiy nra;ag;glf;flth;fs;. (Nytpauhfkk;20:10).

iggpspd; tiuaiwg;gpufhuk;> xU jpUkzkhd Mz; jpUkzkhfhj ngz;Zld; fs;sj; njhlh;G itj;jpUe;jhy; mJ Fw;wkhf xU NghJk; fUjg;glkhl;lhJ.  jpUkzkhd Mz; jpUkzkhfhj ngz;fSld; cwT nfhz;lhy; mtd; tpgr;rhufd; my;y NkYk; mtDld; rk;ke;jg;gl;l jpUkzkhfhj ngz;fSk; tpgr;rhhpfs; my;yh;. jpUkzkhd my;yJ jpUkzkhfhj xUtd; jpUkzkhd ngz;Zld; cwT nfhs;Sk; NghJjhd; tpgr;rhuf; Fw;wk; epfo;e;jjhf fUjg;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;j rk;gtj;jpy; Mz;   jpUkzkhfhjtdhf ,Ue;jhYk; tpgr;rhufdhfNt fzpf;fg;gLfpd;whd; NkYk; ngz; tpgr;rhhpahf fzpf;fg;gLfpd;whs;.  RUf;fkhf nrhy;yg;Nghdhy;> tpgr;rhuk; vd;gJ jpUkzkhd ngz; rk;ge;jg;gl;l fs;s cwT. iggpspd; gb jpUkzkhd Mzpd; fs;s cwT tpgr;rhuNkay;y.  Vd; ,j;jifa xU jiyg;gl;rkhd xOf;f epajp?  kidtp fztdpd; nrhj;jhf fzpf;fg;gl;lhs;;: MfNt mtspd; fs;s njhlh;G fztDf;F mtspd; NkypUf;Fk; jdpg;gl;l chpikia kPWtjhf mikAk;.  fztd; nrhj;jhd kidtpf;F mtdpd; Nky; ve;j chpikAk; ,y;iy.15 mjhtJ> xUtd; jpUkzkhd ngz;Zld; fs;s cwT nfhz;lhy;> mtd; kw;wtdpd; nrhj;jpd; kPJ tuk;G kPWtjhfNt fzpf;fg;gl;L jz;bf;fg;gLthd;.

,];uhaPypy; ,d;W tiu> xU Mz; jpUkzkhfhj ngz;Zld; fs;sj;njhlh;G nfhz;L mjd; %yk; Foe;ij ngw;why; mtDila Foe;ijfs; rl;l G+h;tkhd Foe;ijfshf fUjg;gLk;.  Mdhy;> xU jpUkzkhd ngz; jpUkzkhd my;yJ Mfhj MZld; clYwT nfhz;L mjd; %yk; Foe;ijfs; ngw;W tpl;lhy; mtSila mf;Foe;ijfs;  rl;l tpNuhjkhdjhf khj;jpuky;yhky; Njtbahs; gps;isfs; vd;Wk; fzpf;fg;gl;L kw;w A+jh;fshy; jpUkzk; nra;a jLf;fg;gl;L tpLfpwhh;fs;.  mth;fis mth;fisg;Nghd;w Njtbahs; kf;fNsh my;yJ Gjpjhf kjk; khwpath;fNsh jpUkzk; nra;ayhk;.  ,e;j jil me;jf; Foe;ijfspd; gj;J jiyKiw tiu tpgr;rhuj;jpd; fiw ePq;Fk; tiu ePbf;fpwJ.16

Mdhy; jpUkiw Fh;MNdh ,jw;F Neh;khwhf ve;jg; ngz;izAk; ve;j Mzpd; nrhj;jhf fUjpltpy;iy. jpUkzkhdth;fSf;fpilNaAs;s cwit jpUkiw Fh;Md; cd;djkhd Kiwapy; tpthpf;fpwJ.

mtDila rhd;Wfspy; ,JTk; xd;whFk;.  mtd; cq;fSf;fhf cq;fs; ,dj;jpypUe;Nj kidtpaiug; gilj;jhd;: ePq;fs; mth;fsplk; mikjp ngw Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf! NkYk;> cq;fspilNa md;igAk;> fUiziaAk; Njhw;Wtpj;jhd;.  jpz;zkhf> rpe;jpf;Fk; kf;fSf;F ,jpy; epiwar; rhd;Wfs; cs;sd. (30:21)

,Jjhd; jpUkzj;ijg;gw;wp jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; nfhs;if: md;G> ,uf;fk;> mikjp> MfpaitNaahFk;. kidtp fztdpd; nrhj;jhtJk; Nghd;w xUjiyg;gl;rkhd xOf;f epajpfsy;y.

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         Neh;r;ir rgjk;

,iwtDf;F nra;Ak; Neh;r;irfis xUtd; fz;bg;ghf epiwNtw;w Ntz;Lnkd iggps; $Wfpd;wJ.  mtd; jd; thh;j;ijfis Kwpf;ff; $lhJ.  Mdhy; kWGwk;> xU ngz;zpd; Neh;r;irNah mtis fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjy;y. je;ijapd; tPl;by; tho;e;J te;jhy; mJ mtspd; je;ijahy; mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;> mts; jpUkzkhdtshdhy; fztdhy; mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.  je;ijahNuh/fztNdh kfspd;/kidtpapd; Neh;r;iria mq;fPfhpf;fhtpl;lhy; mtspd; vy;yh rgjq;fSk; xd;Wkpy;yhkyhfp tpLk;.

mts; nra;j nghUj;jidfisAk; mts; nra;Ak;gb jd; Mj;Jkhit epge;jidf;Fl;gLj;jpd epge;jidiaAk; mtSila jfg;gd; Nfl;fpw ehspy; mtd; Ntz;lhk; vd;W jLj;jhy;> mij epiwNtw;w Ntz;bajpy;iy> mtSila GU~d; mijf; Nfl;fpw ehspy; mtd; Ntz;lhk; vd;W jLj;J> mts; nra;j nghUj;jidAk; mts; jd; Mj;Jkhit epge;jidf;Fl;gLj;jpf;nfhz;l epge;jidAk; nry;yhjgb nra;jhNdahdhy;> mg;nghOJ fh;j;jh; mij mtSf;F kd;dpg;ghh;. (vz;zhfkk; 30: 2-15)

Vd; ngz;zpd; thh;j;ij mtis fl;Lg;gLj;jtpy;iy? gjpy; kpfTk; vspJ. jpUkzj;jpw;F Kd;G mts; je;ijapd; nrhj;jhfTk; jpUkzj;jpw;F gpd; mts; fztdpd; nrhj;jhfTk; khwptpLtjhy; mts; thh;j;ijfSf;F ve;j kjpg;Gkpy;iy.  kfspd; Nky; je;ijapd; fl;Lg;ghL ve;j mstpw;nfd;why; mth; tpUk;gpdhy; mtis tpw;Wtplf; $lr; nra;ayhk;!  ,J gw;wp mwpQh;fspd; vOj;Jf;fspy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sjhtJ. Mz; jd; kfis tpw;fyhk;. Mdhy; ngz; jd; kfis tpw;f KbahJ.  Mz; jd; kfspd; jpUkzj;ij epr;rapf;fyhk; Mdhy; ngz; mts; kfspd; jpUkzj;ij epr;rapf;f KbahJ.17 jpUkzk; vd;gJ ngz;zpd; NkYs;s Mjpf;f khw;wk;jhd; vd;gJ mwpqh;fspd; vOj;Jf;fs; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wd : jpUkz epr;rajhh;j;jk; vd;gJ> xU ngz;iz fztdpd; Gdpjkhd -tuk;G kPw Kbahj- nrhj;jhf khw;WtJ vd;gJjhd;....  ngz; xUthpd; nrhj;J vd fUjg;gl;ljhy; mtspd; chpikahsh; mDkjpf;fhj ve;j Neh;r;irAk; nra;a KbahJ vd;gJ njspT.

ngz;fspd; Neh;r;ir rk;ge;jkhd iggpspd; fl;lis mth;fs; kPJ ,e;j E}w;whz;bd; Muk;gk; tiu vjph;kiwahd tpisitNa Vw;gLj;jpapUe;jJ vd;gJ ftdpf;fg;gl Ntz;baJ.  Nkw;fj;jpa cyfpy; jpUkzkhd ngz;zpw;F ve;j rl;l me;j];Jk; ,Ue;jjpy;iy.  mtspd; ve;j nraYk; rl;l G+h;tkhdjy;y.  mts; nra;j ve;j xg;ge;jj;ijAk;> Ngr;Rthh;j;ijfisAk; fztd; ,y;yhkyhf;f KbAk;.  Nkw;fj;jpa ngz;fs;> (A+j-fpwp];jtj;jpd; thhpRfspd; ngUk;ghyhNdhh;) mth;fs; kw;wthpd; nrhj;jhf ,Ug;gjdhy; (kw;wth;fis) fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; ve;j xg;ge;jj;ijAk; nra;a rf;jpaw;wth;fshf fUjg;gl;ldh;.  mth;fspd; je;ijah;fs; kw;Wk; fztd;khh;fs; MfpNahUldhd cwT gw;wpa iggpspd; nfhs;ifahy; ngz;fs;  fle;j ,uz;lhapuk; tUlq;fshf Jd;gkDgtpj;J tUfpd;wdh;.18  

,];yhj;jpy; xt;nthU K];ypkpd; Neh;r;irAk;> mth; MzhapDk; ngz;zhapDk;> mtiu fl;Lg;gLj;Jk;.  xUthpd; thf;FWjpia kWg;gjw;F kw;wth; vtUf;Fk; chpikapy;iy.  MzhNyh ngz;zhNyh nra;ag;gl;l Gdpj Neh;r;iria/rgjj;ij epiwNtw;w jtwpdhy; jpUf;Fh;Md; Rl;bf;fhl;bathW mjw;fhd ghpfhuk; nra;a Ntz;Lk;.

ePq;fs; nra;j tPzhd rj;jpaq;fSf;fhf my;yh`; cq;fisf; Fw;wk; gpbg;gjpy;iy.  MapDk; ePq;fs; cWjpg;gLj;jpr; nra;j rj;jpaq;fSf;fhf (mtw;iw ePq;fs; Kwpj;J tpl;lhy;) cq;fis mtd; mtrpak; jz;bg;ghd;.  (Kwpj;Jtpl;l) rj;jpaj;jpw;fhd Fw;wg;ghpfhuk; (,Jjhd;): ePq;fs; cq;fs; FLk;gj;jhUf;F mspf;fpd;w czTfspy; eLj;jukhd tifapypUe;J gj;J twpath;fSf;F cztspf;f Ntz;Lk;. my;yJ mth;fSf;F Milfs; toq;f Ntz;Lk;.  my;yJ Xh; mbikia tpLjiy nra;a Ntz;Lk;.  Mdhy; (,tw;wpy;) vjw;Fk; rf;jp ngwhjth;fs; %d;W ehl;fSf;F Nehd;G Nehw;f Ntz;Lk;.  ePq;fs; nra;j rj;jpaq;fis Kwpj;J tpl;lhy; ,Jjhd; mtw;wpw;Fhpa Fw;wg;ghpfhukhFk;.  vdNt cq;fs; rj;jpaq;fis (Kwpj;J tplhky;) NgZq;fs;. (5:89)

egpj;Njhoh;fs;> Njhopah;fs; Neubahf te;Nj mth;fsplk; rj;jpag;gpukhzk; nra;Js;sdh;.  ngz;fSk; Mz;fSk; jdpj;jdpahf te;J cWjpg;gpukhzk; nra;th;:

egpNa! ,iwek;gpf;if nfhz;l ngz;fs; ck;kplk; tpRthrg; gpukhzk; nra;tjw;fhf te;J> mth;fs; my;yh`;Tld; vjidAk; ,izitf;fkhl;lhh;fs; vd;Wk;> jpUlkhl;lhh;fs; vd;Wk;> tpgr;rhuk; nra;a khl;lhh;fs; vd;Wk;> jk;Kila Foe;ijfis nfhy;ykhl;lhh;fs; vd;Wk; jq;fSila if fhy;fSf;fpilNa ve;j mtJ}iwAk; ,l;Lf;fl;l khl;lhh;fs; vd;Wk;> ve;j xU ey;y fhhpaj;jpYk; ckf;F khW nra;a khl;lhh;fs; vd;Wk; thf;FWjp mspj;jhy;> mg;NghJ mth;fsplkpUe;J tpRthrg; gpukhzj;ij Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk;.  NkYk;> mth;fSf;fhf my;yh`;tplk; ghtkd;dpg;Gf; NfhUk;.  jpz;zkhf> my;yh`; kpf;f kd;dpg;gtDk; fUiz GhpgtDkha; ,Uf;fpwhd;. (60:12)

xU Mz; mtd; kfs; rhh;ghfNth my;yJ kidtp rhh;ghfNth rj;jpag; gpukhzk; nra;a KbahJ.  mJ Nghy mtdpd; ngz; cwtpdh;fshy; nra;ag;gl;l rj;jpag; gpukhzq;fis uj;J nra;aTk; KbahJ.

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         kidtpapd; nrhj;J

jpUkzk; kw;Wk; FLk;g tho;f;ifapd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;jpd; NkYs;s jPtpu ek;gpf;ifapy; %d;W kjq;fSk; gq;F nfhs;fpd;wJ.  FLk;gj;jpw;F fztNd jiytd; vd;gjpYk; mitfs; xj;Jg;Nghfpd;wd.  ,Ug;gpDk;>  fztdpd; ,e;j jiyikj;Jtj;jpd; tiuaiwapy;jhd; %d;W kjq;fSf;fpilNaAk; kpf Kf;fpakhd tpj;jpahrq;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. A+j-fpwp];jt tof;fq;fs;> ,];yhj;jpypUe;J Kw;wpYk; khWgl;l tpjkhf> ,e;j fztdpd; jiyikj;Jtg; nghWg;ig kidtpapd; chpikahsh; vd;w mstpw;F ePl;b tpLfpd;wd.

jd; mbikf;F mtd; chpikahsdhf ,Ug;gJ NghyNt kidtpf;Fk; chpikahapUf;fpwhd; vd;w nfhs;ifapypUe;Jjhd; kidtpia fztd; vg;gb elj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ eph;zapf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. fs;sTwT gw;wpa xU jiyg;gl;rkhd rl;lk; NkYk; kidtpapd; Neh;r;iria uj;J nra;a fztDf;Fs;s mjpfhuk; Mfpaitfs; ,e;j nfhs;ifapd; tpisNt.  kditpapd; nrhj;jpNyh my;yJ mtspd; rk;ghj;jpaj;jpNyh mtspd; fl;Lg;ghL kWf;fg;gLtjw;Fk; ,Jjhd; fhuzk;.  A+jg; ngz;zpw;F jpUkzkhfpaTlNd mts; jd; nrhj;J jd; rk;ghj;jpaq;fs; Mfpatw;iw fztdplk; ,oe;J tpLfpwhs;.  kidtpiaNa nrhj;jhf ngw;wpUg;gjhy; mtSf;fpUf;ff; $ba midj;J nrhj;Jf;fSk; mtidNa NrUk; vd A+j mwpQh;fs; typAWj;jpf; $Wfpd;wdh;:  kidtpiaNa nrhj;jhf ngWk; NghJ mtspd; nrhj;Jf;fSk; mtDf;Fj;jhd; vd;gJ ,ay;ghdjy;yth? vd;Wk; kidtpia mtd; ngw;wpUg;gjhy; mtspd; nrhj;Jf;fis khj;jpuk; milaf;$lhjh vd;d? vd;Wk; mth;fs; $Wfpd;wdh;.  ,jdhy;> ngUk; gzf;fhug; ngz;fisf;$l jpUkzk; ry;ypf;fhrw;wth;fshf Mf;fptpLfpd;wJ.  kidtpapd; nghUshjhu epiyiag;gw;wp jy;%J ,t;tpjkhf tpthpf;fpwJ:

kidtpapd; nrhj;Jf;fsidj;Jk; fztDf;Nf NrUtjhy; kidtpf;nfd;W vg;gb vJTkpUf;f KbAk;?  mtDilaitfsidj;Jk; mtDilaitfNs NkYk; mtSilaitfs; midj;Jk; mtDilaitfNs.... mtspd; rk;ghj;jpaq;fSk; mts; njUtpy; fz;nlLj;jitfSk; mtDilaitfNs.  tPl;Lr; rhkhd;fSk; Vd; NkirapypUf;Fk; nuhl;bapd; rpjwpaghfk; Kjw;nfhz;L mtDilaitfNs.  mts; vtiuahtJ tpUe;Jf;fioj;J mtUf;F cztspj;Jtpl;lhy;> mts; jd;Dila fztdpd; nrhj;jpypUe;J jpUbatshths;... (San. 71a Git. 62a)

cz;ik epiynad;dntdpy;> A+jg;ngz;zpd; nrhj;Nj khg;gps;isfisf; ftUtjw;fhfNt ,Ue;jd.  jq;fspd; kfSf;F tujl;rizahf nfhLg;gjw;fhf A+jf;FLk;gk; jd; nrhj;jpypUe;J xU ghfj;ij xJf;fp itf;Fk;.  ,e;j tujl;riz Kiwjhd; ngz;fis mth;fspd; je;ijfsp;d; Rikahf fUJk;gb nra;jJ.  je;ij mtis tsh;j;J NkYk; ngUQ;nrhj;ij nfhLj;J mtis jpUkzk; nra;J nfhLf;f Ntz;bajpUe;jJ.  MfNt ngz;zhdts; A+jf; FLk;gj;ijg; nghWj;jtiu flidg; Nghd;wtNsay;yhky; nrhj;ijg;Nghd;wtsy;y.21 mth;fs; fld; Nghd;wth;fs; vd;fpd;w ,e;j epiy ,Ug;gjhy;jhd; ngz;fspd; gpwg;G re;Njhrkhf A+j r%fj;jpy; nfhz;lhlg;gLtjpy;iy.  tujl;riz jpUkzf;nfhilahf fztDf;F> mij mtd; fhf;f Ntz;Lnkd;w epge;jidNahL> nfhLf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. fztd; mjd; eilKiw chpikahsuhfp tpLfpwhd;> Mdhy; mij mtd; tpw;f KbahJ.  jpUkzkhdTlNdNa jhd; nfhLj;j tujl;ridapd; NkYs;s fl;Lg;ghl;il kidtp Kw;wpYk; ,oe;J tpLfpwhs;.  NkYk; mtis ghuhkhpf;Fk; fztdpd; flikf;F ifkhwhf mts; Ntiyf;Fg;Ngha; rk;ghjpj;J mtspd; rk;ghj;jpaq;fs; KOtijAk; fztdplNk nfhLj;Jk; tpl Ntz;Lk;. mts; jd; nrhj;ij tpthfuj;J ngWk; NghNjh my;yJ fztdpd; kuzj;jpd; NghNjhjhd; jpUk;gg;ngw;wpl KbAk;. kidtp ,we;J tpLthshapd; fztd; mtspd; KOr;nrhj;jpw;Fk; thhprhfptpLthd;. Mdhy; fztd; Kjypy; ,we;J tpLthdhapd; kidtp Kjypy; nfhLj;jij khj;jpuk; jpUk;gg;ngw KbAk; Mdhy; fztdpd; nrhj;jpypUe;J mtSf;F vJTk; fpilf;fhJ. fztd; kzf;nfhilahf kzkfSf;F VNjDk; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. MapDk; mts; jpUkzge;jj;jpypUf;Fk;tiu mjd; eilKiw chpikahsuhf fztNd ,Ug;ghd;.22

rkPgfhyk; tiu fpwp];jtKk; mNj A+j eilKiwiaj;jhd; gpd;gw;wpte;jJ. (fhd;];lhd;ildpw;F gpwF) fpwp];jt Nuhkrhk;uh[;aj;jpypUe;j kj kw;Wk; rptpy; mjpfhhpfs;  jpUkzj;ij mq;fPfhpg;gjw;F nrhj;Jg;gj;jpuk; rkh;g;gpf;fg;gLtij xU epge;jidahfNt itj;jpUe;jdh;.  FLk;gq;fs; ngz;fSf;F (Nghl;bapd; fhuzkhf) $Ljy; $Ljy; tujl;rizia toq;fpd mjd; fhuzkhf Mz;fs; rPf;fpuj;jpy; jpUkzk; nra;a tpUk;GtJk; mNj Neuj;jpy; ngz;fspd; FLk;gk; mtspd; jpUkzj;ij (nghUshjhu Fiwtpd; fhuzkhf) js;spg;NghLtJk; tof;fkhfptpl;lJ.23  fhdhdpa rl;lj;jpd; gpufhuk; tpthfuj;jpd;NghNj kidtp jd; tujl;rizia> mts; tpgr;rhuf;Fw;wj;jpUf;Fhpatshf ,y;yhkypUe;jhy;> jpUk;gg; ngWths;.  fhdhdpa kw;Wk; rptpy; rl;lj;jpd; gpufhuk; gj;njhd;gjhk; E}w;whz;bd; ,Wjp ,Ugjhk; E}w;whz;bd; njhlf;fk; tiuapy; fpwp];jt INuhg;gh kw;Wk; mnkhpf;fhtpypUe;j ngz;fs; nrhj;Jhpikia ,oe;jpUe;jdh;.  cjhuzj;jpw;F> 1632 Mz;L njhFj;J ntspaplg;gl;l Mq;fpNyar; rl;lj;jpy; mspf;fg;gl;bUe;J ngz;fspd; chpikfs; vd;w jiyg;gpy; fztDf;Fr; nrhe;jkhdJ fztDf;Nf.  kidtpf;Fr; nrhe;jkhdJk; fztDf;Nf. vd;gJk; mlq;fpapUe;jJ.25 jpUkzj;jhy; ngz; mtSila nrhj;Jhpikia khj;jpuk; ,bf;ftpy;iy; mtspd; jdpj;jd;ikNa ,oe;J tpLfpwhs;.  mtspd; ve;jr; nraYk; rl;lG+h;tkhdjhf fzpf;fg;glkhl;lhJ.  mts; nra;j ve;j tpw;gid my;yJ md;gspg;G Mfpatw;iw mtspd; fztd; rl;lG+h;tkw;wjhf Mf;fplKbAk;.  mtsplk; ve;j xg;ge;jKk; nra;J nfhz;ltd; Nkhrb nra;j Fw;wthspahf Fw;wQ;rhl;lg;gLthd;.  NkYk; mts; ahh; NkYk; tof;Fj; njhluNth mts; kPJ ahUk; tof;Fj; njhluNth KbahJ NkYk; mts; jd; fztdpd; kPJk; tof;Fj; njhlu KbahJ.26 jpUkzkhd ngz;iz rl;lk; xU Foe;ijiag; NghyNt elj;jpaJ.  kidtp mts; fztdpd; nrhj;jhf khwptpLfpwhs; MfNt mts; jd; nrhj;Jhpik> rl;lG+h;t jdpj;jd;ik kw;Wk; FLk;gg; ngah; Mfpatw;iw ,oe;J tpLfpwhs;.27

A+j-fpwp];jt kjq;fs; jw;fhyk; tiu jpUkzkhd ngz;fSf;F kWj;jpUe;j Rje;jpu jdpj;jd;ikia ,];yhk; Vohk; E}w;whz;Nl mth;fSf;fspj;J mth;fis fz;zpag;gLj;jptpl;lJ. ,];yhj;jpy; kzg;ngz;Nzh my;yJ mtspd; FLk;gNkh khg;gps;isf;F ve;j nrhj;ijAk; mspf;fNtz;bajpy;iy.  K];ypk; FLk;gj;jpy; ngz;zhdts; xU Rikay;y.  ey;y fztd;fis milAk; nghUl;L gzj;ij itj;Jf;nfhz;L Njbj; jphpaNtz;bajpy;iy vd;Dk; mstpw;F ,];yhk; ngz;fis fz;zpag;gLj;jpAs;sJ. ,q;Nf khg;gps;isjhd; ngz;Zf;F kzf;nfhilia mspf;f Ntz;Lk;.  ,e;jf;nfhil ngz;zpd; nrhj;jhFk;.  ,jpy; khg;gps;isf;Nfh my;yJ ngz;zpd; FLk;gj;jpw;Nfh ve;j chpikAk; fl;Lg;ghLk; ,y;iy.  ,d;iwa K];ypk; rKjhaq;fspy; rpytw;wpy; jpUkzf;nfhilfs; yl;rf;fzf;fhd lhyh;fs; tiuAk; Ngha; tpLtJ mrhjhuzky;y.28 kidtpapd; nrhj;jpy; fztDf;F> mts; kdKte;J jUtijj; jtpu> NtW ve;j chpikAk; ,y;iy.  ,J rk;ge;jkhf jpUf;Fh;Md; jd; epiyia kpfj; njspthf njhptpj;Js;sJ:

ePq;fs; (jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;l) ngz;fSf;F mth;fSila k`h;fis (jpUkzf; nfhilfis) kfpo;NthL nfhLj;J tpLq;fs;.  mjpypUe;J xU rpwpij> mth;fs;> (jq;fs;) kdkhu cq;fSf;F tpl;Lf; nfhLj;jhy; mjid ePq;fs; jhuhskhf kfpo;Tld; GrpAq;fs;. (4:4)

kidtpiaAk; Foe;ijfisAk; guhkhpf;Fk; nghWg;G fztidNa rhh;tjhy; mtsplk; ,Uf;Fk; nrhj;Jf;fSk; mtspd; rk;ghj;jpaq;fSk; mtspd; KO fl;Lg;ghl;bNyAk; mtspd; cgNahfj;jpw;fhfTNk ,Uf;Fk;.30 kidtp vt;tsT nry;tKilatshf ,Ue;jNghjpYk; mtSk; FLk;gr; nrytpw;F gq;fspf;fNtz;Lnkd;w flik> mts; tpUk;gpf; nfhLj;jhNy jtpu> mts; kPJ ,y;iy.  fztDf;Fk; kidtpf;Fk; xUth; nrhj;jpypUe;J kw;wtUf;F thhpRhpik cz;L.  NkYk;> jpUkzkhd ngz; ,];yhj;jpy; mtspd; jdpj;jd;ikiaAk; FLk;gg; ngaiuAk; jf;fitj;Jf;nfhs;fpwhs;.31  K];ypk; ngz;fspd; chpikfs; gw;wp xU mnkhpf;f ePjpgjp ,t;thW njhptpj;jhh;:  xU K];ypk; ngz; gj;J Kiw $l jpUkzk; nra;ayhk;> mtspd; gy;NtW fzth;fshy; mtspd; jdpj;jd;ik kiwe;jpLtjpy;iy.  jd; ngaUlDk; rl;lG+h;t jdpj;jd;ikAlDk; mts; xU R+hpakz;lyj;jpYs;s fpufk; Nghyj; jpfo;fpwhs;.

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         tpthfuj;J

tpthfuj;ijg; nghWj;jtiuapy; %d;W kjq;fSk; Kf;fpakhd tpj;jpahrq;fis nfhz;Ls;sd.  fpwp];jtk; tpthfuj;ij Kw;wpYk; jil nra;fpwJ.  jpUkzge;jk; fiyf;fg;glKbahjJ vd Gjpa Vw;ghL jpl;ltl;lkhf $WfpwJ.  ,NaR nrhd;djhf $wg;gLtjhtJ> tpgr;rhuf;Fw;wj;jpw;fy;yhky; Ntnwjw;fhfTk; jd; kidtpia tpthfuj;J nra;gtd; mtis tpgr;rhhpahf;Ftjw;F fhuzkhfptpLfpwhd;; NkYk; tpthfuj;J nra;ag;gl;ltis kzg;gtDk; tpgr;rhuk; nra;jtdhthd;. (kj;NjA 5:32)

ePf;Fg;Nghf;fw;w ,e;jf;nfhs;if re;Njfkpy;yhky; epiwNtw;w Kbahj xd;Nw. kdpjh;fs; xOf;fkhz;Gfspy; ghpG+uzkhfpapUg;gJ Nghd;wnjhU epiyia ,f;nfhs;if jd;dfj;Nj nfhz;Ls;sJ.  Mdhy; mj;jifanjhU epiyia kdpj r%fk; ,Jtiu vl;bajpy;iy.  jq;fspd; jpUkz tho;T rPh;nra;a Kbahj mstpw;F Mfptpl;lnjd;W xU jk;gjp czUk; gl;rj;jpy; mth;fis tpthfuj;J nra;atplhky; jLg;gJ mth;fSf;F ve;j ed;ikiaAk; Vw;gLj;jptplhJ.  xUtUf;nfhUth; tpUk;ghj jk;gjpfis mth;fspd; tpUg;gj;jpw;Fkhwhf xd;whf ,Uf;f fl;lhag;gLj;JtJ gadw;wJk; mwpTf;F cfe;jJ my;yhjJkhFk;.  MfNt> KO fpwp];jt cyfKk; tpthfuj;ij mDkjpf;f fl;lhag;gLj;jg;gl;bUg;gJ tpag;gpw;Fhpajy;y. 

kw;nwhUGwk;> A+j kjNkh ve;j fhuzKkpd;wp> fztd; kidtpia rpwpjsNtDk; tpUk;ghtpl;lhYk;> tpthfuj;J nra;a mDkjpj;Js;sJ.

xUtd; xU ];jphPia tpthfk; gz;zpf;nfhz;lgpd;G> mtsplj;jpy; ,yr;irahd fhhpaj;ijf; fz;L> mts;Nky; gphpakw;wtdhdhy;> mtd; js;Sjypd; rPl;il vOjp> mts; ifapNy nfhLj;J> mtis jd; tPl;bypUe;J mDg;gp tplyhk;.  mts; mtDila tPl;il tpl;Lg; Nghdgpd;G ntnwhUtDf;F kidtpahfyhk;.  me;j ,uz;lhk; GU~Dk; mtis ntWj;J> js;Sjypd; rPl;il vOjp> mts; ifapNy nfhLj;J> mtisj; jd; tPl;bypUe;J mDg;gptpl;lhYk;> mtis tpthfk;gz;zpd me;j ,uz;lhk; GU~d; ,we;J NghdhYk;> mts; jPl;Lg;gl;lgbapdhy;> mtisj; js;sptpl;l mtSila Ke;jpd GU~d; jpUk;gTk; mtis kidtpahfr; Nrh;j;Jf;nfhs;sf;$lhJ. (cghfkk; 24: 1-4)

NkYs;s trdj;jpYs;s ,yr;irahd gphpakw;w vd;w thh;j;ijfis Ghpe;J nfhs;tjpy; A+j mwpQh;fspilNa fzprkhd NtWghL cs;sJ.  mth;fspd; fUj;J NtWghLfis jy;%J Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

jd; kidtpapd; tpgr;rhuf; Fw;wk; ,Ue;jhy;jhd; mtis tpthfuj;J nra;ayhnkd ~khkp gphpT fUJfpwJ Mdhy; mtDila VNjDnkhU czit gho;gLj;jp tpl;lhy; $l mtis tpthfuj;J nra;ayhnkd `py;nyy; gphpT fUJfpwJ.  mtis tpl mjpf moFs;s ngz;iz fhZk; NghJ $l mtis tpthfuj;J nra;ayhk; vd mfPgh mwpQh; $Wfpwhh;fs;.   (Gittin 90a-n)

Gjpa Vw;ghL ~khkp gphptpd; fUj;ijAk; A+jr; rl;lk; `py;nyy;> mwpQh; mfPgh MfpNahh;fspd; fUj;ijAk; gpd;gw;Wfpd;wd.  `py;nyy; gphptpd; fUj;J NkNyhq;fpajhy; ve;j fhuzKkpd;wp kidtpia tpthfuj;J nra;Ak; Rje;jpuj;ij A+jr; rl;lk; fztDf;F mspj;Js;sJ.  gphpakw;w kidtpia tpthfuj;J nra;Ak; chpikia mspg;gNjhL khj;jpuk; gioaVw;ghL epd;W tplhky; nfl;l kidtpia tpthfuj;J nra;tij flikahfTk; Mf;FfpwJ.

nfl;l kidtpahdts; mtkhdj;ijAk; jiyFdpitAk; kdNtjidiaANk nfhz;L tUfpwhs;.  vtDila kidtp fztid kfpo;tpf;fj; jtWfpwhNsh mtdpd; if jsh;e;Jk; Kl;L tYtpye;Jk; NghFk;.  ghtj;jpd; njhlf;fk; ngz;Nzahths;> mtshNyNa ehnky;yhk; rhfpNwhk;.  XOf;Fs;s fyj;ij nrhl;lNth my;yJ nfl;l kidtp mts; tpUk;gpaij nrhy;yNt mDkjpf;fhNj.  cd; fl;Lg;ghl;il mts; Vw;Wf;nfhs;stpy;iynadpy; mtis tpthfuj;J nra;jDg;gptpL. (Ecclesiasticus 25:15)

kidtpaplk; fhzg;gLk;> fzth;fshy; tpthfuj;J nra;ag;glNtz;ba mstpw;Fs;s Fzq;fshf> rpy Fzq;fis jy;%J Fwpg;gpl;Lr; nrhy;fpwJ:  ;njUtpy; rhg;gpl;lhNyh> mts; njUtpy; KO%r;rhf Fbj;jhNyh> njUtpy; Foe;ijf;F ghY}l;bdhNyh mts; jd; fztid tpl;L tpyfp tpl Ntz;Lnkd mwpQh; Nkah; $Wfpwhh;. (gj;J tUlk; Foe;ij ngwhj)  kyl;L kidtpia tpthfhuj;J nra;tijAk; jy;%J flikahf;fpAs;sJ. xUtd; kzk; nra;J gj;J tUlkhd gpd;Gk;> kidtp Foe;ijNaJk; ngwtpy;iynadpy; mtd; mtis tpthfuj;J nra;J tpl Ntz;Lk;. (Yen. 64a).

fzth;fSf;Fs;s chpikfs; ,t;thwpUf;ifapy; kidtpfs; ,JNghd;w fztd;fis tpthfuj;J nra;jpl KbahJ. ,Ug;gpDk;> A+j kidtp kpfTk; tYthd fhuzq;fs; ,Ue;jhy; khj;jpuk; tpthfuj;jpw;fhf Nfhh;l;by; tof;F njhlu KbAk;.  kpfTk; Fwpg;gpl;l rpy fhuzq;fs; ,Ue;jhy; khj;jpuNk mts; tpthfuj;J Nfhu KbAk;. mitfs; : cly; NfhshWfs;> Njhy; tpahjpfs;> FLk;g tho;f;ifapy; <LglKbahik Nghd;witfshFk;.  kidtpapd; tpthfuj;J Nfhhpf;ifia ePjpkd;wk; Mjhpf;fj;jhd; KbANk jtpu jpUkzge;jj;ij uj;J nra;tjw;fhd mjpfhuk; mjw;fpy;iy.  MdhYk; ePjpkd;wk; tpthfuj;J nra;a eph;g;ge;jpf;Fk; tifapy; fztid fz;bf;f> mguhjkpl> rpiwapypl NkYk; r%ftpyf;fk; nra;ayhk;.  ,Ue;Jk;> fztd; tpUk;gpdhy; gpbthjkhf ,Ue;jhy;> mtis tpthfuj;J nra;a kWj;J fhytiuaw;W fl;Lz;L fplf;fr;nra;a KbAk;. ,ijtpl Nkhrkhdnjd;dntdpy;> mtd; mtis fztDkpy;yhjtshf tpthfuj;Jk; nra;ag;glhjhtshf ,e;j epiyapNyNa tpl;Ltpl;L nrd;Wk; tplyhk;.  mtd; NtW ngz;iz jpUkzk; nra;ayhk; my;yJ jpUkzk; nra;ahkNyNa NtnwhU ngz;iz itj;Jf;nfhz;L mts; %yk; Foe;ijfs; ngwyhk; (,j;jifa Foe;ijfs; A+jr; rl;lj;jpd;gb rl;lG+h;tkhdjhfNt fUjg;gLfpd;wd.)  ,t;thW tplg;gl;l kidtp mts; ,d;Dk; kw;nwhUtdpd; rl;lG+h;tkhd kidtpahf ,Ug;gjhy; NtW vtidAk; jpUkzk; nra;a KbahJ NkYk; kw;w vtNdhL thoTk; KbahJ mg;gb tho;e;jhy; mts; tpgr;rhhpahf fzpf;fg;gLths; NkYk; mjd; %yk; gpwf;Fk; Foe;ijfs; gj;J jiyKiwtiu Njtbahs; kf;fshfNt fzpf;fg;gLth;. ,t;thW tpthfuj;Jk; fpilf;fhky; fztDkpy;yhky; ,Uf;Fk; ngz; m$dh (tpyq;fplg;gl;l ngz;) vd;wiof;fg;gLfpwhs;. mnkhpf;fhtpy; ,j;jifa A+j m$dhj;fs; (m$dhtpd; gd;ik) Rkhh; 1000 Ngh; Kjy; 1500 Ngh; tiuAk; ,];uhaPypy; 16000 Ngh; tiuAKs;sdh;.  ,t;thW khl;bf;nfhz;l kidtpfsplk; tpthfuj;jpw;fhf A+j fztd;khh;fs; Mapuf;fzf;fhd lhyh;fis thq;Ffpwhh;fs;.35  

tpthfuj;J rk;ge;jkhf ,];yhk; fpwp];jtk; A+jk; Mfpa kjq;fSf;fpilNa eL epiyikia tfpf;fpwJ. ,];yhj;jpy; jpUkzk; ge;jk; vd;gJ kpfTk; Gdpjkhdjhf ,Ug;gjhy;> eph;g;ge;jkhd fhuzq;fSf;fhfNtay;yhky; Kwpf;fg;glf;$lhJ. jq;fspd; jpUkzge;jk; Mgj;jhd epiyapypUf;Fk; NghJ mij rPh;nra;tjw;fhf rhj;jpakhd midj;J eltbf;iffisAk; Nkw;nfhs;SkhW ,];yhk; jk;gjpfis typAWj;JfpwJ.  NtW topNa ,y;iynaDk; gl;rj;jpyy;yhJ tpthfhuj;J nra;ag;glf;$lhJ.  RUf;fkhfr; nrhy;yg;Nghdhy;> ,];yhk; tpthfuj;ij mq;fPfhpj;Js;snjdpDk; mij Kbe;j mstpw;F jLf;fpwJ. Kjypy; mjDila mq;fPfhu gf;fj;ij ehk; Muhayhk;. jq;fspd; jpUkzge;jj;ij Kwpj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;F ,];yhk; ,UtUf;FNk chpik toq;fpAs;sJ.  fztDf;F jyhf; (tpthfuj;J) chpikia nfhLj;Js;sJ.  NkYk;> A+j kjj;ijg; Nghyy;yhky;> kidtpf;Fk; F|yh vd;W nrhy;yg;gLk; tpthfuj;J chpikia nfhLj;Js;sJ.  fztd; tpthfuj;jpd; %yk; jpUkzge;jj;jpw;F Kw;Wg;Gs;sp itj;jhy; mtd; nfhLj;j jpUkznfhilapypUe;J vijAk; mtd; jpUk;gg; ngw KbahJ.  jhd; nfhLj;j jpUkz nfhil vj;Jiz tpiyAah;e;jjhapUg;gpDk; kjpg;G kpf;fjhapUg;gpDk; mij jpUk;g thq;ff;$lhnjd tpthfuj;J nra;Ak; fztd;khh;fis jpUf;Fh;Md; kpfj; njspthf jilnra;fpwJ : 

ePq;fs; xU kidtpf;Fg; gjpyhf ntnwhUj;jpia kidtpahff; nfhz;L tu ehbdhy;> ePq;fs; mtSf;F gzf;FtpaiyNa (k`;uhf)f; nfhLj;jpUe;jhYk; $l> mjpypUe;J nfhq;rq;$l jpUk;gg; ngwhjPh;fs;:  ePq;fs; mtJ}W $wpAk;> gfpuq;fkhf nfhLik ,ioj;Jk; mjidj; jpUk;gg; ngWtPh;fsh? (4:20)

kidtp jpUkzge;jj;ij Kwpf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; mts; fztdplkpUe;J thq;fpa jpUkzf; nfhilfsidj;ijAk; jpUk;gf;nfhLj;jply; Ntz;Lk;.  jd; kidtp jd;NdhL njhlh;e;J ,Uf;fNtz;Lk; vd;W tpUk;Gk; fztid tpl;Lg;gphpe;J NghFk; kidtp mtd; mspj;jitfis jpUk;gf;nfhLg;gnjd;gJ epahakhd <Ljhd;.  kidtpf;F nfhLj;j kzf;nfhilfis ve;j re;jh;g;gj;jpYk;> mth;fshfNt jpUkz ge;jj;ij Kwpf;Fk;NghJ jtpu> jpUg;gp thq;ff;$lhJ vd K];ypk; Mz;fSf;F jpUf;Fh;Md; fl;lisapLfpd;wJ: 

my;yh`;tpd; tuk;GfSf;Fs; epiyj;jpUf;f KbahJ vd (fztd; kidtpahfpa ,UtUk;) mQ;rpdhy;> NkYk; mt;tpUtUk; my;yh`;tpd; tuk;GfSf;Fs; epiyj;jpUf;fkhl;lhh;fs; vd;W (eLth;fshfpa) ePq;fSk; mQ;rpdhy;> kidtp fztDf;F VNjDk; <lhff; nfhLj;J gphpe;J tpLtjpy; mth;fs; kPJ jtwpy;iy. ,it my;yh`; Vw;gLj;jpAs;s tuk;GfshFk;. vdNt> ePq;fs; mtw;iw kPwpr; nry;yhjPh;fs;.  NkYk; ahh; my;yh`;tpd; tuk;Gfis kPWfpwhh;fNsh mth;fNs mf;fpukf;fhuh;fs; Mth;. (2:229)

xU ngz; egp (]y;) mth;fsplk; te;J jd;Dila jpUkzge;jj;ij fiyj;JtpLk;gb $wpdhs;.  jd; fztdpd;> Fzk; gof;ftof;fq;fspy; ve;j FiwAk; ,y;iy vd;Wk; MdhYk;> mtUld; tho Kbahj mstpw;F mtiu ntWf;fpwhs; vd;gJjhd; mtspd; gpur;id vd;Wk; $wpdhs;.  (mth; cdf;F kzf;nfhilahf nfhLj;j) Njhl;lj;ij jpUg;gp nfhLg;ghah? vd;W egp (]y;) mth;fs; Nfl;lNghJ mts; mjw;F xg;Gf;nfhz;lhs;.  mg;nghOJ egp (]y;) mth;fs; Njhl;lj;ij thq;fpf; nfhz;L kzKwpit Vw;Wf;nfhs;SkhW (fztUf;F) cj;jutpl;ldh;. (G`hhp)

rpy rkaq;fspy; K];ypk; kidtp jd; jpUkz ge;jj;ij Kwpf;f tpUk;ghky; mNj Neuj;jpy; fztdpd; nfhLik> fhuzkpy;yhky; tpl;L tpl;Lr; nry;Yjy;> FLk;g tho;f;ifia epiwNtw;whkypUg;gJ Nghd;w xU  rpy eph;g;ge;jkhd R+o;epiyapd; fhuzkhf tpthfuj;J Nfhhpdhy; ,J Nghd;w re;jh;g;gq;fspy; ,];yhkpa ePjpkd;wk; jpUkzge;jj;ij fiyj;J tpLfpwJ.

RUf;fkhf> ngz;fSf;F ,];yhk; epfuw;w chpikfis nfhLj;Js;sJ.  mts; Fyh|tpd; %yk; jpUkzge;jj;ij Kwpf;f KbAk; my;yJ tpUk;gpdhy; tpthfuj;jpw;fhf ePjpkd;wj;jpYk; tof;Fj;njhlu KbAk;.  tpthfuj;J toq;f kWf;Fk; gpbthjkhd fztdhy; K];ypk; ngz; xU NghJk; tpyq;fplg;glKbahJ.  K];ypk; ngz;fSf;F toq;fg;gl;Ls;s ,j;jifa chpikfs;jhd; Vohk; E}w;whz;bd; Muk;g fhy ,];yhkpa rKjhaj;jpy;  tho;e;j te;j - jq;fspd; fzth;fsplkpUe;J gphpa tpUk;gpa A+jg; ngz;fis K];ypk; ePjpkd;wq;fspypUe;J jq;fspd; tpthfuj;J rPl;il thq;fj; J}z;baJ.   ,e;j tpthfuj;J rPl;L nry;yhjJ vd mwpQh;fs; mwptpj;jdh;. A+jg;ngz;fs; ,];yhkpa ePjpkd;wq;fSf;F nry;tij jLf;Fk;Kfkhf A+j mwpQh;fs; mth;fSf;F Gjpa rYiffisAk; chpikfisAk; toq;fpdh;.  fpwp];jt ehLfspy; tof;fpypUe;j Nuhkhdpar; rl;lq;fs; A+jr;rl;lq;fis tpl ve;jtifapYk; rpwe;jhf ,y;yhkypUe;jjhy; mq;fpUe;j A+jg;ngz;fSf;Fk; (,];yhk; mspj;j) ,J Nghd;w rYiffs; mspf;fg;gltpy;iy.

tpthfuj;ij vt;thW ,];yhk; ntWf;fpwJ vd;gjpy; ,g;NghJ ek; ftdj;ij jpUg;gyhk;.  egp (]y;) mth;fs; tpRthrpfsplk; $WtjhtJ.

mDkjpf;fg;gl;l fhhpaq;fspNyNa> ,iwtdplk; kpfTk; ntWg;gpw;FhpaJ tpthfuj;Jjhd;. ( mG+jhT+j;)

gpbf;ftpy;iynad;w xNu fhuzj;jhy; xU K];ypk; kidtpia tpthfuj;J nra;af;$lhJ. VNjDk; rpwpa ntWg;Gzh;Tfs; ,Ue;jhYk; kidtpfsplk; md;ghfNt ele;Jnfhs;s Ntz;Lnkd jpUf;Fh;Md; K];ypk; Mz;fSf;F fl;lisapLfpd;wJ.

mth;fNshL ey;yKiwapy; tho;f;if elj;Jq;fs;.  mth;fSld; Nrh;e;J tho ePq;fs; tpUk;ghtpl;lhYk; nghWikiaf; iff;nfhs;Sq;fs;.  Vnddpy; cq;fSf;F xU tp~ak; gpbf;fhky; Nghfyhk;.  Mdhy; my;yh`; mjpy; mNef ed;ikfis itj;jpUf;ff;$Lk;. (4:19)

egp (]y;) mth;fSk; ,J Nghd;w fl;lisiaNa je;jUspAs;sdh;.

K/kpdhd Mz; K/kpdhd ngz;iz (kidtpia) ntWf;ff;$lhJ.  mtspd; VNjDnkhU Fzj;ij mtd; ntWj;jhYk; kw;nwhd;W mtid kfpo;tpf;Fk;. (K];ypk;)

jq;fs; kidtpfsplk; kpfr;rpwe;j Kiwapy; elg;gth;fNs K];ypk;fspy; kpfr; rpwe;jth;fshthh;fs; vd egp (]y;) mth;fs; $wpAs;shh;fs;.

cq;fspy; rpwe;j FzKilath;fNs <khdpy; ghpG+ukhzth;fs;.  jq;fs; kidtpfsplk; rpwe;j Kiwapy; elg;gth;fNs cq;fspy; kpfr;rpwe;jth;fs;. (jph;kpjp)

,Ug;gpDk;> ,];yhk; xU eilKiwf;Ffe;j khh;f;fkhf ,Ug;gjhy; jpUkzge;jj;ij Kwpf;ff;$ba rpy re;jh;g;gq;fSk; ,Uf;fpd;wd vd;gij mJ mq;fPfhpf;fpd;wJ.  mJ Nghd;w R+o;epiyfspy; md;ghf my;yJ fl;Lg;ghlhf ,Uf;Fk;gb cgNjrk; GhptJ rhpahd jPh;thfhJ.  ,J Nghd;w R+o;epiyfspy; vd;d nra;Jnfhs;tJ?  jtW nra;gth;fsplk; ele;J nfhs;Sk; Kiwgw;wp eilKiwf;Ffe;j rpy mwpTiwfis jpUf;Fh;Md; jUfpd;wJ. jpUkzge;jj;ij Kwpf;Fkstpw;F rhpaw;w eilKiwfSs;s kidtpaplk; vt;thW ele;J nfhs;sNtz;Lnkd jpUf;Fh;Md; mwpTWj;JfpwJ:

NkYk; ve;jg; ngz;fs; Fwpj;J mth;fs; (jk; fztUf;F) khW nra;thh;fs; vd;W ePq;fs; mQ;Rfpd;wPh;fNsh 1) me;jg; ngz;fSf;F ey;ywpT Gfl;Lq;fs;. 2) gLf;iffspypUe;Jk; mth;fis xJf;fp itAq;fs; 3) NkYk; mth;fis mbAq;fs; Mdhy; mth;fs; cq;fSf;F fPo;g;gbe;J tpl;lhy; gpwF mth;fSf;F vjpuhff; if ePl;l ve;j rhf;FNghf;FfisAk; NjlhjPh;fs;.  jpz;zkhf ek;Gq;fs;:  my;yh`; NkNy ,Uf;fpd;whd;:  mtd; cah;thdtDk; nghpNahDkha; ,Uf;fpd;whd;.  4) NkYk; fztd;> kidtpf;fpilNa cwT KwpANkh vd ePq;fs; mQ;rpdhy; fztdpd; cwtpdhpypUe;J xU eLtiuAk;> kidtpahpd; cwtpdhpypUe;J kw;nwhU eLtiuAk; epakpAq;fs;.  mt;tpUtUk; cwitr; rPh;gLj;j ehbdhy; my;yh`;Tk; mt;tpUtUf;fpilNa ey;ypzf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jthd;.  (4:34-35)

Kjy; %d;W tiffspYk; Kjypy; Kaw;rp nra;ag;glNtz;Lk;.  mitfs; rhpahd gyid mspf;ftpy;iynadpy; rk;ge;jg;gl;l FLk;gq;fspd; cjtpfs; ehlg;glNtz;Lk;. fPo;g;gbahj kidtpia mbj;J mwpTWj;Jtnjd;gJ> kpfTk; jtph;f;f Kbahj mtrpaj;jpd; epkpj;jNkahFk;> mtspd; jtWfis ,e;j eltbf;if fise;J tpLk; vd;w ek;gpf;ifapy; jw;fhypfkhd eltbf;ifahf> %d;whk; fl;lkhfNt nra;ag;glNtz;baJ vd;gij Nkw;fz;l trdj;jpk; %yk; czh;e;J nfhs;syhk;.  ,e;j eltbf;if gydspj;J tpl;lnjdpy; fztd; Nkw;nfhz;L ve;jtifapy; kidtpia njhe;juT nra;tJ> Nkw;fz;l trdj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUg;gJ Nghy;> mDkjpapy;yhjJ.  ,e;j eltbf;ifAk; gydspf;ftpy;iynad;whYk; fztd; ,ij njhlh;tjw;F mDkjpapy;iy.  ,Wjp fl;l Kaw;rpahf FLk;gj;jpd; cjtpNahL rkurk; Kaw;r;rpf;fg;glNtz;Lk;.

kidtp kpfTk; ntspg;gilahd  khdf;Nflhd jtWfis nra;Ak; Nghjy;yhJ ,e;j %d;whk;fl;l eltbf;ifia cgNahfpf;ff;$lhnjd K];ypk; fztd;khh;fSf;F egp (]y;) mth;fs; mwpTWj;jpAs;shh;fs;. mt;thW mbf;Fk;NghJ $l mJ fLikapy;yhj KiwapypUf;fNtz;LnkdTk; mjd; gpwF kidtp jpUe;jptpl;lhnsdpy; mjd; gpwF (,J Nghd;w eltbf;ifia njhlh;tjd; %yk;) mtspd; Nfhgj;ij J}z;Lkstpw;F elf;ff;$lhJ vdTk; egp ngUkhdhh; (]y;) mth;fs; mwpTWj;jpAs;shh;fs;.

mth;fs; gfpuq;fkhd khdf;Nflhd Fw;wj;jpw;Fwpath;fshapUe;jhy;  mth;fis jq;fspd; gLf;ifapy; jdpahf tpl;LtpLq;fs; (mjw;Fk; jpUe;jhtpby;) mth;fis ,Nyrhf mbAq;fs;.  mth;fs; cq;fSf;F (,j;Jld;) fPb;gbe;Jtpl;lhy; mth;fis Jd;gg;gLj;Jk; Nehf;fj;Jld; NtnwijAk; NjlhjPh;fs;. (jph;kpjp)

NkYk; egp (]y;) mth;fs; tuk;GkPWk; tifapyhd vj;jifa mbiaAk; fz;ldk; nra;Js;shh;fs;.  jq;fspd; fztd;khh;fs; jq;fis mbj;J tpl;ljhf rpy K];ypk; kidtpkhh;fs; egp (]y;) mth;fsplk; Gfhh; nra;j NghJ  mt;tpjk; nra;gth;fs; (kidtpfis mbg;gth;fs;) cq;fspy; rpwe;jth;fsy;y egp (]y;) mth;fs; ciuj;jhh;fs;. (mG+jhT+j;)

,J rk;ge;jkhf egp (]y;) mth;fs; NkYk; $wpAs;sjhtJ:

cq;fspd; FLk;gj;NjhL kpfTk; ey;yKiwapy; elg;gtNu cq;fspy; kpfr;rpwe;jth;.  ehd; vd; FLk;gj;jpdNuhL kpfTk; ey;yKiwapy; elf;fpNwd;. (jph;kpjp)

ngz;fis mbg;gjw;F ngah;Nghd xUtiu Fwpj;J mtiu jpUkzk; nra;a Ntz;lhnkd ghj;jpkh gpd;j; if]; vd;w egpj;Njhopf;F egp (]y;) mth;fs; mwpTiu $wpdhh;fs;:

mGy;[`;Kk; KMtpahTk; vd;id ngz; Nfl;Ls;sdh;> (ehd; ahiu jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;syhk;?) vd egp ]y; mth;fsplk; ehd; Nfl;lNghJ: (vdf;F mwpTiuahf) KMtpah kpfTk; Vio> mGy;[`;k; ngz;fis mbg;gth; vd;W $wpdhh;fs;. (K];ypk;)

xOf;fj;jpd; epkpj;jk; jz;lidahf kidtpia mbg;gij jy;%J mq;fPfhpf;fpwJ.  khdf;Nflhd fhhpaj;jpw;F ,l;Lr;nry;tJ Nghd;w kpf Nkhrkhd <LgLk;NghJjhd; mbf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w ve;j fl;Lg;ghLk; ,y;iy.  mts; jd; tPl;L Ntiyia nra;a kWj;jhYk; mtis mbg;gjw;F mtd; mDkjpf;fg;gl;Ls;shd;. NkYk; ,Nyrhfj;jhd; mbf;fNtz;Lk; vd;w tiuAk; fpilahJ.  rhl;ilahy; mbj;Njh my;yJ gl;bdp Nghl;Nlh kidtpapd; gpbthjj;ij Kwpf;f mtDf;F mDkjpAz;L.40

fztdpd; jtwhd eltbf;iffshy; jpUkzge;jk; KwpAkstpw;F tUnkdpy;> mJ Fwpj;J jpUf;Fh;Md; mwpTWj;JtjhtJ:

xU ngz;> jd;dplk; fztd; ey;y Kiwapy; ele;J nfhs;skhl;lhd; vd;Nwh> Gwf;fzpj;J tpLthd; vd;Nwh mQ;rpdhy; fztd;-kidtp ,UtUk; (jk; chpikfspy; rpytw;iw gu];guk; tpl;Lf;nfhLj;J) jkf;fpilNa rkhjhdk; nra;J nfhs;tjpy; jtNwJk; ,y;iy:  ve;epiyapYk; rkhjhdk; nra;Jnfhs;tNj eyk; juf;$bajhFk; (4:128)

,J Nghd;w epiyfspy; kidtp fztNdhL rkhjhdkhf ele;J nfhs;s Ntz;ba topfis NjLk;gb (FLk;gj;jpd; MjuTlNdh ,y;yhkNyh) mwpTWj;jg;gl;Ls;shs;. (fztid) gLf;ifapypUe;J tpyfpapUf;fNth my;yJ mbf;fNth jpUf;Fh;Md; mwpTWj;jtpy;iy vd;gJ ,q;F ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ.  ,e;j xUjiyg;gl;rkhd rl;lj;jpw;F fhuznkd;dntdpy; Vw;fdNt jtwhd Kiwapy; ele;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; fztdpd; nfh^uj;jhf;FjypUe;J kidtpia fhg;gjw;NfahFk;.  mj;jifa nfh^uj;jhf;Fjy; kidtpf;Fk; Vd; jpUkzge;jj;jpw;Ff; $l jPq;F Vw;gLj;jptplf;$Lk;.  MdhYk;> ,j;jifa eltbf;iffis kidtpapd; Ntz;LNfhspd;gb ePjpkd;wk; mKy;gLj;jyhk; vd;W rpy K];ypk; mwpQh;fs; $Wfpd;wdh;.  mjhtJ> Kjypy; ePjpkd;wk; fztid fz;bf;fTk;> gpwF kidtpaplk; $Ltij jLf;fTk; ,Wjpahf xg;Gf;fhf mbf;fTk; nra;ayhk;.41  

jpUkzkhd jk;gjpfs; jq;fspd; jpUkzge;jk; Fog;gj;jpYk; Nkhrkhd epiyapYk; ,Uf;Fk; NghJ mij fhg;gjw;fhf eilKiwf;F rhj;jpakhd kpfr;rhpahd mwpTiwfis ,];yhk; toq;FfpwJ.  jk;gjpfspy; ahNuDk; xUth; jpUkzge;jj;ij Fiyf;FksT ele;jhy; mg;Gdpj ge;jj;ij fhg;gjw;F rhj;jpakhd gydspf;ff;$ba vy;yh topfspYk; Kaw;rpf;fNtz;Lnkd kw;wtiu jpUf;Fh;Md; mwpTWj;JfpwJ. vy;yh topfSNk gadspf;fj;jtWk; gl;rj;jpy; mth;fs; rkhjhdkhfTk; ,zf;fkhd KiwapYk; gphpe;J nry;y ,];yhk; mDkjpf;fpwJ.

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         jha;khh;fs;

ngw;Nwhh;fis kpfTk; md;NghLk; gzpNthLk; elj;j Ntz;Lnkd gioa Vw;ghL gy ,lq;fspy; fl;lisapLfpwJ.  vtNuDk; jd; je;ijiaNah my;yJ jhiaNah rgpg;ghdhNafpy; mtd; kuzj;jpw;Fs;shf;fg;glNtz;Lk;. (Nytpauhfkk; 20:9) vd;Wk; mwpTs;std; je;ijia kfpo;tpf;fpwhd; Mdhy; Kl;lhNsh jhia fdtPdk; gz;Zfpwhd; (ePjpnkhopfs; 15:20) je;ijia fz;zpag;gLj;JtJ khj;jpuk; rpy ,lq;fspy; mwpTs;std; je;ijapd; nrhy;iy Nfl;fpwhd;. (ePjpnkhopfs; 13:1)> jdpj;J Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUg;gJ Nghy jhia khj;jpuk; mJ Nghy; vq;NfAk; jdpj;J Fwpg;gplg;glf;fhNzhk;.  NkYk;> jha; kfg;Ngwpd; NghJk; ghY}l;Lk; fhyj;jpYk; mile;j Jd;gj;ij Nghw;Wtjw;F milahskhf mtis md;ghf elj;jNtz;Lk; vd;w rpwg;ghf vq;Fk; typAWj;jg;gltpy;iy. ,jy;yhky;> je;ij kfdpd; nrhj;jpypUe;J thhprhf ngWk; mNj Ntisapy; jha;f;Nfh xd;Wkpy;iy.42

md;idia nfsutpf;fr;nrhy;Yk; xU Ntjkhf Gjpa Vw;ghl;il $WtJ fbdk;.  mjw;Fkhwhf>  jha;khh;fis md;Gld; elj;JtJ ,iwtopapy; nry;tjpypUe;J jLf;Fk; vd;nwhU kNdhghtj;ij mij gbf;Fk; xUtUf;F Vw;gLj;JfpwJ.  xUtd; jd; jhia ntWf;fhtpl;lhy; fpwp];Jtpd; rPluhFkstpw;F ey;y fpwp];jtdhf Mf Kbahnjd GjpaVw;ghL $WfpwJ :

ahnjhUtd; vd;dplj;jpy; te;J> jd; jfg;gidAk; jhiaAk; kidtpiaAk; gps;isfisAk; rNfhjuiuAk; rNfhjhpfisAk;> jd; [PtidAk; ntWf;fhtpl;lhy; vdf;F rP~dhapUf;fkhl;lhd;. (Y}f;fh 14:26)

NkYk; ,NaRfpwp];JNt jd; jhiag;gw;wpa mf;fiuapy;yhjth; Nghd;Wk; Vd; mtiu mtkjpg;gth; Nghd;Wk; Gjpa Vw;ghL vLj;Jf;fhl;LfpwJ.  xU $l;lj;jpdUf;F mth; Nghjpj;Jf;nfhz;bUe;j rkak; mthpd; jhahh; mtiuj;Njb te;jNghJ mtiu ntspapy; nrd;W ghh;f;f mf;fiu vLf;ftpy;iy:

mg;nghOJ mtUila rNfhjuUk; jhahUk; te;J> ntspNa epd;W> mtiu miof;Fk;gb mthplj;jpy; Ms; mDg;gpdhh;fs;.  mtiur; Rw;wpYk; cl;fhh;e;jpUe;j [dq;fs; mtiu Nehf;fp: ,Njh ck;Kila jhahUk; ck;Kila rNfhjuUk; ntspNa epd;W ck;ikj; NjLfpwhh;fs; vd;whh;fs;.  mth;fSf;F mth; gpujpAj;jukhf: vd; jhahh; ahh;?  vd; rNfhjuh; ahh;? vd;W nrhy;yp jk;ik R+o cl;fhh;e;jpUe;jth;fisr; Rw;wpg;ghh;j;J ,Njh vd; jhAk; vd; rNfhjuUk; ,th;fNs.  NjtDila rpj;jj;jpd;gb nra;fpwtd; vtNdh mtNd vdf;Fr; rNfhjuDk;> vdf;Fr; rNfhjhpAk;> vdf;Fj; jhAkha; ,Uf;fpwhd; vd;whh;. (khw;F 3:31-35)

kjj;jpd; NkypUf;fNtz;ba gpbg;G FLk;gj;jpd; NkYs;s gpbg;ig tpl vt;tifapYk; Fiwe;jpUf;ff;$lhJ vd;gij $l;lj;jpdh; mwpAk;gbr; nra;aNt ,NaR mt;thW nrhd;dhh; vd rpyh; thjpf;fyhk;. ,Ug;gpDk; ,j;jifa myl;rpag;Nghf;if Nkw;nfhs;shkNyNa mth; mj;jifa ghlj;ij mth;fSf;F Nghjpj;jpUf;f KbAk;. jk; jhia jd;id ngw;W tsh;j;jij $l;lj;jpy; xU ngz; Nghw;wpaNghJ mij Vw;Wf;nfhs;s kWj;J mtkhpahij nra;Ak;NghJk; ,Nj Nghf;Fj;jhd; mthplk; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ :

mth; ,itfisr; nrhy;Yifapy;> [df;$l;lj;jpypUe;j xU ];jphP mtiu Nehf;fp: ck;ikr; Rke;j fh;g;gKk; ePh; ghYz;l KiyfSk; ghf;fpaKs;sitfnsd;W rj;jkpl;Lf; nrhd;dhs;.  mjw;F mth;: mg;gbahdhYk; NjtDila thh;j;ijia Nfl;L mijf; fhj;Jf;nfhs;Sfpwth;fNs mjpf ghf;fpathd;fs; vd;whh;. (Y}f;fh 11:27-28)*

fd;dpkhpahs; Nghd;w cah;e;j me;j];Js;s jhahNu ,t;tpjk; fz;zpaf;Fiwthf ,NaR fpwp];J Nghd;w cah;e;j me;j];Js;stuhy; elj;jg;gLfpwhh;fs; vd;why;   rhjhuz fpwp];Jth;fs; xU rhjhuzkhd jhia vt;thW elj;Jthh;fs;?

jha;ikf;F ,];yhj;jpy; jug;gLk; fz;zpak;> khpahij cah;T <L ,izaw;wJ. ,iwtid tzq;Ftjw;F mLj;jgbahd kpf cah;e;j nrayhf ngw;Nwhh;fsplk; md;ghapUj;jiyNa ,];yhk; $WfpwJ :

mtidNa tzq;fptUkhWk; ngw;Nwhh;fsplk; md;ghapUf;Fk;gbAk; ck;Kila ug;G ckf;F fl;lisapLfpwhd;.  mth;fs; ,UtUNkh my;yJ ,Uthpy; xUtNuh KJikaile;J tpl;lhy; mth;fis ntWj;njhU thh;j;ijNaDk; nrhy;yhjPh; NkYk; mth;fis tpul;lTk; nra;ahjPh;.  mth;fis fz;zpaj;JlDk; md;GlDk; miog;gPuhf.  gzpntDk; ,wf;ifiaj; jho;j;JtPuhf. NkYk; mth;fs; vd;id rpWgps;isapy; ghpNthL tsh;j;jJ Nghy; mth;fSf;F eP mUs; nra;thahf vd;Wk; gpuhh;j;jpg;gPuhf (17:23-24).

gpurtj;jpYk; Foe;ij tsh;g;gpYk; jha;f;Fs;s kpfg;ngUk; gq;if jpUf;Fh;Md; gy ,lq;fspy; tpNr~khf typAWj;jpf;$WfpwJ:

ngw;Nwhh;fsplk; ey;yKiwapy; elf;Fk;gb kdpjDf;F ehk; fl;lisapl;Ls;Nshk;.  Jd;gj;jpw;F Nky; Jd;gkDgtpj;J mts; mtid ngw;whs; NkYk; mtDf;F ghY}l;Lk; fhyNkh ,uz;lhz;LfshapUe;jJ.  (MfNt) vdf;Fk; cd; ngw;Nwhh;fSf;Fk; ed;wp nrYj;J. vd;dplNk ,Wjpapy; (ePq;fisdtUk;) jpUk;gp tuNtz;bath;fs; (31:14)

jha;f;Fs;s kpfr;rpwe;j ,lj;ij egp (]y;) mth;fs; kpfTk; mofhd Kiwapy; tpthpj;Js;shh;fs;:

ehd; ahiu fz;zpag;gLj;jNtz;Lk; vd xU kdpjh; egp (]y;) mth;fsplk; Nfl;lNghJ ck;Kila jhia vd egp (]y;) mth;fs; gjpyspj;jhh;fs;.  mLj;J ahh;? vd me;j kdpjh; kPz;Lk; tpdt cd;Dila jha; vd egp (]y;) mth;fs; gjpyspj;jhh;fs;.  mLj;J ahh;? vd %d;whk; KiwAk; mth; tpd cd;Dila jha; vd egp (]y;) mth;fs; gjpyspj;jhh;fs;. mLj;J ahh;? vd mk;kdpjh; Nfl;l NghJ cd;Dila je;ij vd egp (]y;) mth;fs; gjpyspj;jhh;fs;. (G`hhp> K];ypk;)

K];ypk;fs; ,d;Dk; ey;yKiwapy; ,d;W tiu gpd;gw;wp tUk; rpy nfhs;iffspy;  jha;khh;fis mf;fiwNahL ftdpg;gJk; xd;whFk;.  K];ypk; jha;khh;fs; jq;fspd; kfd;fs; kfs;fs; MfpNahhplkpUe;J ngUk; fz;zpak; Kd;khjphpahdit.  K];ypk; jha;khh;fSf;Fk; mth;fspd; Foe;ijfSf;FkpilNaapUf;Fk; jPtpu md;Gk; mth;fs; jha;khh;fis vg;nghOJk; kpfTk; khpahijNahL NgZtJk; Nkw;fj;jpah;fis tpag;gpyho;j;jpAs;sJ.43

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         ngz;fSf;F nrhj;Jhpik

ngz;fs; rk;ge;jkhf iggpSf;Fk; jpUf;Fh;MDf;FkpilNaAs;s kpfTk; Kf;fpakhd tpj;jpahrk; jq;fs; ,we;j cwtpdhpd; nrhj;jpy; mth;fSf;Fs;s thhpRhpik gw;wpaNjahFk;.  ,J gw;wpa iggpspd; Nghf;F mwpQh; vg;];Od; mth;fshy; njspthf tpthpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ:  tPl;bypUf;Fk; ngz;fs; kidtp ngz; Foe;ijfs; MfpNahUf;F FLk;gr;nrhj;ij thhprhfg; ngWk; chpik ,y;iynad;gJjhd; iggpspd; Muk;g fhyj;jpypUe;J njhlh;e;J khwhky; ,Ue;JtUk; gof;fk;. kpfTk; goikahd thhpRhpik gof;fj;jpd;gb>   mf;FLk;gj;jpYs;s mbikfs; vt;thW FLk;gj;jpd; nrhj;jhf fUjg;gl;ldNuh mJ NghyNt ngz;fSk; FLk;gj;jpd; nrhj;jhfNt fUjg;gl;ldh;. Mdhy;> Mz; thhpR ,y;yhj gl;rj;jpy; ngz;fSf;F nrhj;J cz;L vdTk; Mdhy; kidtpf;Nfh Mz; thhpR ,y;yhj gl;rj;jpYk; nrhj;J ,y;iy vd;gJjhd; NkhNrapd; rl;lkhFk;.44 Vd; ngz;fs; FLk;gr;nrhj;jpd; gq;fhf fUjg;gl;ldh;? vd;gjw;F mwpQh; vg;];Od; tpsf;fk; jUfpwhh; jpUkzj;jpw;F Kd;G mth;fs; je;ijapd; nrhj;jhfTk; jpUkzj;jpw;F gpwF fztzpd; nrhj;jhfTk; mth;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wdh;.45  

iggps; vz;zhfkk; 27:1-11y; thhpRhpikf;fhd rl;lk; tpsf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. mjpy; fztdpd; nrhj;jpypUe;J kidtpf;F ve;j gq;Fk; nfhLf;fg;gltpy;iy mNj Neuj;jpy; fztd; mtspd; (mts; tujl;rizahf nfhz;L tUtJ Nghd;w) nrhj;jpw;F kfd;fSf;F Kd;djhf chpikahsd; Mfp tpLfpwhd;.  je;ijf;F nrhj;Jhpik ,Uf;Fk; mNj Neuj;jpy; jha;f;F nrhj;Jhpik ,y;yNt ,y;iy.  Mz; Foe;ijfs; capNuhbUf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; tpjitfSk; ngz;Foe;ijfSk; jq;fs; cztpw;Ff; $l Mz; Foe;ijfspd; fUizia Ntz;b epw;f Ntz;bajpUe;jJ.  mjdhy;jhd; A+j r%fj;jpy; tpjitfSk; mehij ngz;fSk; kpfTk; ghpjhgj;jpw;Fhpa epiyapy; ,Ue;jdh;.

fpwp];jt kjKk; ,ij ePz;lfhykhf gpd;gw;wp te;jJ.  fpwp];jt kj kw;Wk; rptpy; rl;lq;fs; ngz; Foe;ijfis je;ijapd; nrhj;ij thhprhf ngWtij jLj;jJ.  fztdpd; nrhj;jpypUe;Jk; kidtpfspd; thhpRhpik gpLq;fg;gl;bUe;jJ.  fle;j E}w;whz;L tiu ,e;j jPa rl;lk; mKypy; ,Ue;Jte;jJ.46

,];yhj;jpw;F Ke;jpa mNugpah;fs; thhpRr; nrhj;ij jq;fspd; Mz;kf;fSf;F khj;jpuk;  vd tiuapWj;jpUe;jdh;. jpUkiwFh;Md; ,e;j ePjpaw;w gof;fq;fis mopj;njhopj;J vy;yh ngz; cwtpdh;fSf;Fk; thhpRr;nrhj;jpy; gq;fspj;jJ:

(kuzkile;j) jha;> je;ijaUk; neUq;fpa cwtpdUk; tpl;Lr; nrd;w nrhj;jpy; Mz;fSf;Fg; gq;Fz;L.  (mJ Nghy) jha;> je;ijaUk; neUq;fpa cwtpdUk; tpl;Lr; nrd;w nrhj;jpy; ngz;fSf;Fk; gq;Fz;L:  mr;nrhj;J FiwthfNth> mjpfkhfNth ,Ue;jhYk; rhpNa. ,e;jg;gq;F my;yh`;tpdhy; eph;zapf;fg;gl;ljhFk;. (4:7)

ngz;fSf;Fk; nrhj;Jhpik ,Uf;fpwnjd INuhg;gh mq;fPfhpg;gjw;F gjpd;%d;W E}w;whz;LfSf;F Kd;dhpypUe;Nj K];ypk; jha;khh;fs;> kidtpfs;> kfs;fs;> rNfhjhpfs; thhpRr; nrhj;jpy; gq;F ngw;W te;jdh;.  thhpRr; nrhj;Jg;gphpT Vuhskhd tpguq;fisf; nfhz;l kpfTk; gue;j jiyg;ghFk;. (4:7> 11>12> 176).  jha; je;ijaUf;F fpilf;Fk; rkgq;if xJf;fp tpl;L nghJthf ngz;fSf;F fpilf;Fk; thhpRhpik  rl;lk; vd;dntdpy; ngz;zpd; gq;F Mzpd; gq;if tpl miughjp vd;gjhFk;.  Mz;fSf;Fk; ngz;fSf;Fkhd ,e;j nghJr; rl;lk; kw;w rl;lq;fNshL ,izj;Jg; ghh;f;fg;glhtpl;lhy; mePjpahd xd;whf Njhd;wyhk;.  ,jd; gpz;zdpapy; ,Uf;Fk; Qhdj;ij tpsq;fNtz;Lnkdpy; ngz;iz  tpl MZf;F kpfTk; mjpfkhd nghUshjhu flikfs; ,Uf;fpd;wd vd;gij ftdpf;fNtz;Lk;.  (kidtpf;F nrhj;J? vd;w gFjpia ghh;f;f)  Mz; ngz;zpw;F jpUkzf;nfhil mspf;fNtz;Lk;.  ,J mtspd; jdpg;gl;l nrhj;jhf> mts; tpthfuj;J nra;ag;gl;lhy; $l> MfptpLfpd;wJ. Mdhy; ngz;Zf;Nfh kzf;nfhil vJTk; nfhLf;fNtz;ba flikapy;iy.  NkYk;> kidtpiaAk; Foe;ijfisAk; guhkhpg;gJ fztdpd; flikahf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.  ,jpy; mtDf;F cjt Ntz;baJ kidtpapd; flikay;y.  mts; kdKte;J nfhLg;gijj;jtpu mtspd; nrhj;Jf;fSk; rk;ghj;jpaq;fSk; mtspd; jdpg;gl;l cgNahfj;jpw;Fj;jhd;.  ,];yhk; FLk;g tho;f;ifia kpfTk; typAWj;JfpwJ vd;gij xt;nthUtUk; czu Ntz;Lk;.  ,isQh;fis kzk; GhpAk;gb kpfTk; Mh;t%l;LfpwJ> tpthfuj;ij ntWf;fpwJ NkYk; rd;dpahrj;ij mJ ew;nrayhf mq;fPfhpf;ftpy;iy.  MfNt> cz;ikahd ,];yhkpa rKjhaj;jpy; FLk;g tho;f;ifNa rf[khdjhfTk; FLk;gkw;w tho;f;if kpfTk; mhpjhdjhfNtapUf;Fk;.  ,];yhkpa r%fj;jpy; jpUkz taJ te;j midj;J Mz; ngz;fSk; jpUkzk; nra;jpUg;gh;.  ,tw;iw fUj;jpy; nfhz;L ghh;j;jhy;> K];ypk; ngz;fis tpl Mz;fSf;F mjpf nghUshjhu Rikfs; ,Uf;fpd;wd MfNt mjdhy; Vw;gLk; nghUshjhu Vw;wj;jho;it jtph;j;J r%fk; ghy; kw;Wk; ,dg;Nghh;fsw;w  tho;f;if elj;jj;jhd; ,j;jifa thhpRhpik rl;lk;  vd;gJ ed;F Ghpa tUk;. K];ypk; ngz;fSf;fpUf;Fk; nghUshjhu chpikfs; kw;Wk; flikfs; Mfpatw;iw rw;Nw xg;gpl;Lg;ghh;j;j gpwF ,];yhk; ngz;fis epahakhf khj;jpuk; elj;jpltpy;iy Mdhy; kpfTk; mjpfkhfNt toq;fpAs;sJ vd xU gphpl;ld; K];ypk; ngz;kzp KbTf;Fte;Js;shh;.47

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         tpjitfspd; Jd;gepiyfs;

gioa Vw;ghL tpjitfSf;F fztdpd; nrhj;jpypUe;J ve;j gq;ifAk; mq;fPfhpf;fhjjdhy;> mth;fs; A+j [dq;fspNyNa kpfTk; ghjpg;gpw;Fs;shdth;fshf ,Ue;jdh;.  mtSila ,we;j fztdpd; nrhj;jpy; gq;F ngw;w fztdpd; Mz; cwtpdh;fs; mr;nrhj;jpypUe;J mtSf;F rhg;ghl;bw;F nfhLf;fNtz;Lk;. MapDk;> mij ngw;Wj;jUtjw;F ve;j mikg;Gk; ,y;yhjjhy; mth;fspd; tho;f;if kw;wth;fspd; fUiziaNa rhh;e;jpUf;fNtz;bajhapUe;jJ.  MfNt tpjitfs; kpfTk; jho;e;j th;f;fkhfapUe;jdh; tpjitj;JtNk kpfg;ngUk; ,optpd; milahskhf fUjg;gl;lJ. (Vrhah 54:4).  Mdhy; nrhj;jpypUe;J mtis tpyf;fp itj;jpUg;gjdhy; tpjitf;F Jd;gepiy jUtNjhL khj;jpuk; epd;Wtplhky;> ,we;j rNfhjuDf;F re;jjpia cUthf;fp mtd; ngah; kq;fhkypUf;fr; nra;tjw;fhf> Foe;ijaw;w tpjit ,we;j fztdpd; rNfhjuid> mtd; Vw;fdNt kzkhdtdhf ,Ue;jhy; $l jpUkzk; nra;a Ntz;Lk;  vd;Wk; $wp nte;j Gz;zpy; Nty; gha;r;RfpwJ. (Mjpahfkk; 38).

mg;nghOJ A+jh Xdhid Nehf;fp eP cd; jikad; kidtpiar; Nrh;e;J> mtis ikj;Jdr; rje;jukha;g; gilj;J cd; jikaDf;F re;jjp cz;lhf;F vd;whd;. (Mjpahfkk; 38:8)

,e;j jpUkzj;jpw;F tpjitapd; rk;kjk; mtrpakpy;iy.  tpjit ,we;j fztdpd;> mtdpd; re;jjpia cWjpnra;af;$ba> nrhj;jhfNt fUjg;gl;lhs;.  iggpspd; ,e;jr;rl;lk; ,d;dKk; ,];uNtypy; gpd;gw;wg;gl;L tUfpd;wJ.48 Foe;ijaw;w tpjit mtd; rNfhjuDf;F nrhj;jhf nfhLf;fg;gl;lhs;. mr;rNfhjud; jpUkzk; nra;Ak; taijailahj rpWtdhf ,Ue;jhy; mtd; jpUkz taijailAk; tiu mts; fhj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,we;j fztdpd; rNfhjud; mtis kzf;f kWj;jhy; khj;jpuk; mts; tpLtpf;fg;gLths;. mg;NghJ jhd; tpUk;gpatid mts; kze;J nfhs;syhk;. ,jpypUe;J tpLjiy ngw tpUk;Gk; tpjitfis mth;fspd; fztdpd; cld; gpwe;jth;fs; gpshf;nkapy; nra;tJ ,d;iwa ,];uhapypy; rhjhuzkhf elf;Fk; tprakhFk;.

,];yhj;jpw;F Ke;jpa mugpfSk; ,J Nghd;w eilKiwiaNa gpd;gw;wp te;jdh;.  tpjit jfg;gdpd; nrhj;jhf fUjg;gl;L kfdhy; thhpRr;nrhj;jhfg; ngwg;gl;lhs;. rhjhuzkhf> ,we;j je;ijapd; kw;w kidtpapd; %yk; gpwe;j %j;j kfDf;F mts; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhLf;fg;gl;lhs;. ,e;j gof;fj;ij jpUf;Fh;Md; fLikahd Kiwapy; fz;bj;J mopj;jJ: 

NkYk; cq;fs; je;ijah; kzKbj;jpUe;j ngz;fis ePq;fs; xUNghJk; kzKbj;Jf;nfhs;shjPh;fs;.  Kd;dhy; ele;jJ ele;Jtpl;lJ.  cz;ikapy; ,J xU khdf;Nflhd> ntWf;fj;jf; nrayhFk;.  fPo;j;jukhd elj;ijAkhFk;. (4:22)

kj FUthdtd;; tpjitfisNah tpthfuj;J nra;ag;gl;l ngz;fisNah my;yJ tpgr;rhhpfisNah  jpUkzk; nra;af; $lhJ vd jLf;fg;gLk; mstpw;F tpjitfSk; tpthfuj;J nra;ag;gl;lth;fSk; iggpspdhy; fPo;j;jukhdth;fshf fzpf;fg;gl;lhh;fs;:

fd;dpifahapUf;fpw ngz;iz mtd; (Mrhhpad;) tpthfk; gz;z Ntz;Lk;.  tpjitiaahdhYk; js;sg;gl;ltisahdhYk; fw;GFiye;jtisahdhYk; NtrpiaahdhYk; tpthfk;gz;zhky; jd; [dq;fSf;Fs;Ns xU fd;dpifia tpthfk;gz;zf;fltd;. mtd; jd; tpj;ijj; jd; [dq;fSf;Fs;Ns ghpRj;jf; Fiyr;ryhf;fhky; ,Ug;gdhf. (Nytpauhfkk; 21: 13-15)

,d;iwa ,];uhapypy; Nfh`d; ,dj;ijr; Nrh;e;jth;fs; (Myaj;jpd; gpujhd Mr;rhhpa Fyj;ij Nrh;e;jth;fs;) tpjitiaNah tpth`uj;J nra;ag;gl;l ngz;izNah my;yJ tpgr;rhhpiaNah jpUkzk; nra;a KbahJ.49  fzth;fs; ,aw;if fhuzq;fshy; xd;wd; gpd; xd;whf ,we;J %d;W Kiw xU ngz; tpjitahf;fg;gl;Ltpl;lhy; mts; kpfTk; mghafukhdts;  jpUkzk; nra;a jLf;fg;gl;lts; vd A+jr;rl;lk; $WfpwJ.50  Mdhy; jpUf;Fh;MNdh rhjpfisNah my;yJ mghafukhdth;fs; vdg;gLth;fisNah (mg;gbahdth;fs; ,Ug;gjhf) mq;fPfhpfg;gjpy;iy. tpjitfSk; tpthfuj;J nra;ag;gl;lth;fSk; jhq;fs; tpUk;gpath;fis kzg;gjw;F Rje;jpuk; cz;L.  tpjitapd; NkNyh my;yJ tpthfuj;J nra;ag;gl;tspd; kPNjh ve;jtpj fiwAk; gbtjpy;iy.  jpUf;Fh;Md; mUs;fpd;wJ:

ePq;fs; ngz;fis tpthfuj;J nra;J mth;fspd; (,j;jh) jtiz KbAk; jUthia mile;J tpl;lhy;> ey;yKiwapy; mth;fis cq;fSld; thor;nra;Aq;fs; my;yJ ey;y Kiwapy; mth;fis mDg;gp tpLq;fs;.  Mdhy; tuk;G kPWk; vz;zj;JlDk; njhy;iy nfhLf;Fk; vz;zj;JlDk; mth;fis ePq;fs; jLj;J epWj;jhjPh;fs;.  mg;gb vtNudk; nra;jhy;> cz;ikapy; mth; jkf;Fj;jhNk mePjp ,ioj;Jf; nfhz;ltuhthh;.  my;yh`;Tila trdq;fisg; ghpfhrkhf vLj;Jf;nfhs;shjPh;fs;. (2:231)

cq;fspy; vtNuDk; kidtpaiutpl;L kuzkile;J tpl;lhy;> me;j mtUila kidtpah; ehd;F khjk; gj;J ehl;fs; jhkhff; fhj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.  jq;fs; jdpg;gl;l tp~aj;jpy; (jk; tpUg;gj;Jf;nfhg;g) xOq;fhd Kiwapy; nray;gl mth;fSf;F chpikAz;L.  mjpy; cq;fs; kPJ ve;jj; jtWk; ,y;iy. ePq;fs; nra;tjidj;ijAk; my;yh`; ed;fwpgtdhf ,Uf;fpwhd;. (2:234)

cq;fspd; kidtpaiu tpl;L kuzkilNthh;> jk; kidtpahpd; eyd; fUjp> (tPl;il tpl;L) mth;fs; ntspNaw;wg;glhky; Xuhz;L tiu mth;fSf;F Ntz;ba tho;f;if trjp mspf;fg;gl Ntz;Lnkd kuz rh]dk; nra;a Ntz;Lk;.  Mdhy; mth;fshfNt ntspNawpa gpwF mth;fs; jq;fspd; jdpg;gl;l tpraj;jpy; xOq;fhd Kiwapy; nray;gl;lhy; cq;fs; kPJ ve;jg;nghWg;Gkpy;iy.  NkYk; my;yh`; ahtw;wpd; kPJk; ty;yik kpf;NfhDk;> NguwpthsDkhapUf;fpd;whd;. (2:240).

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         gyjhukzk;

,g;NghJ gyjhukzj;ij gw;wpa Nfs;tpia jPh;f;f Kaw;r;rpg;Nghk;.  gyjhukzk; vd;gJ kdpj r%fq;fspy; gytw;wpy; fhzg;gl;l kpfj;njhd;ikahd gof;fkhFk;.  iggps; gyjhukzj;ij jilnra;atpy;iy.  mjw;F khwhf> gioa Vw;ghLk; mwpQh;fspd; vOj;Jf;fSk; gyjhukzj;ij kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; mq;fPfhpg;gijNa ehk; fhz;fpNwhk;.  kd;dd; rhNyhNkhdpw;F vOE}W kidtpfSk; Kd;D}W itg;ghl;bfSk; ,Ue;jhf nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. (1 ,uh[hf;fs; 11:3)  NkYk;> kd;dd; jhtPjpw;Fk; gy kditpfSk; gy itg;ghl;bfSk; ,Ue;jjhf nrhy;yg;gLfpd;wJ. (2 rhKNty; 5:13).  gy;NtW kidtpfSf;F gpwe;j kfd;fSf;fpilNa vt;thW nrhj;Jf;fis tpepNahfpg;gJ vd;gJ gw;wpa fl;lisfSk; gioa Vw;ghl;by; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. (cghfkk; 22:7).; kidtpapd; rNfhjhpia Nghl;b kidtpahf;fpf; nfhs;tjw;Fj;jhd; ,jpy; jilAs;sJ. (Nytpauhfkk; 18:8) mjpfg;gl;rk; ehd;F kidtpfs; ,Uf;fyhk; vd jy;%J ghpe;Jiuf;fpwJ.51 gjpdhwhk; E}w;whz;L tiu INuhg;gpa A+jh;fs; gyjhukzg; gof;fj;ij gpd;gw;wpNa te;jdh;.  fpof;fj;jpa A+jh;fs;> mth;fs; ,];uhaPypw;F te;J FbNaWk; tiu> njhlh;e;J gyjhukzj;ij mDrhpj;J te;jdh;. ,];uhapypy; rptpy; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; mq;Nf mJ jilnra;ag;gl;lJ.  ,Ug;gpDk;> rptpy; rl;lj;ij kpQ;Rk; kjr;rl;lj;jpd; fPo; gyjhukzj;jpw;F mDkjp ,Uf;fNt nra;fpwJ.52  

GjpaVw;ghL ,Jgw;wp vd;d $WfpwJ?  ghjh; C[Pd; `py;Nkd; vd;gthpd; gyjhukzk; gw;wp kWMa;T vd;w Mo;e;j Muha;r;rp Gj;jfj;jpy; $WtjhtJ: xUth; xU ngz;izj;jhd; kzf;f Ntz;Lnkd;w ntspg;gilahd fl;lisNah my;yJ gyjhukzk; nra;af;$lhJ vd;w jilNah Gjpa Vw;ghl;by; vq;FNk ,y;iy.53 NkYk;> A+j r%fj;jpy; gyjhukzk; mD~;bf;fg;gl;L te;jNghjpYk; ,NaRfpwp];J mjw;F vjpuhf vijAk; nrhy;ytpy;iy.  fPNuf;f-Nuhk fyhr;rhuj;ij (xNu xU rl;lG+h;t kidtpia khj;jpuk; kzf;f Ntz;Lnkd;w> Mdhy; itg;ghl;bfisAk; tpgr;rhuj;ijAk; mDkjpj;j) mDrhpj;Nj rh;r; gyjhukzj;ij jil nra;jJ vd;w cz;iiia ghjy; C[Pd; `py;Nkd; ftdj;jpw;F nfhz;L tUfpwhh;. ek;Kila ,f;fhyj;jpy;> Nuhk gof;ftof;fj;jpw;F Vw;g kw;nwhU jpUkzk; nra;tJ jilnra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.54 vd;w Gdpj mf];bdpd; mth;fspd; fl;lisia vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfpwhh;.  gyjhu kzj;ij rh;r; jilnra;jJ kw;w fyhr;rhuj;ij gpd;gw;wp nra;jNjay;yhJ mJ fpwp];jt kjj;jpd; fl;lisay;y vd Mg;gphpf;f rh;r;RfSk; Mg;gphpf;ff; fpwp];jth;fSk; mth;fspd; INuhg;gpa rNfhjuh;fSf;F mbf;fb epidT+l;Lfpd;wdh;.

jpUf;Fh;MDk; gyjhukzj;ij mDkjpj;Js;sJ> Mdhy; ve;jtpj fl;Lg;ghLk; ,y;yhky;y:

mehij(g;ngz;)fSld; ePjkhf elf;f ,ayhJ vd;W ePq;fs; mQ;rpdhy; cq;fSf;F tpUg;gkhd ngz;fis ,uz;buz;lhf> Kk;%d;whf> ehd;F ehd;fhf kzKbj;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;.  Mdhy; (mth;fspilNa) ePjkhf ele;jpl KbahJ vd;W ePq;fs; mQ;RtPh;fshapd; xU ngz;iz kl;Lk; kzKbj;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;; my;yJ cq;fs; tyf;fuk; nrhe;jkhf;fpf; nfhz;l ngz;fisNa kidtpahf;fpf; nfhs;Sq;fs;.  ePjp jtwhkypUg;gjw;F ,JNt kpf neUf;fkhdjhFk;.(4:3)

iggpspw;F vjpuhf jpUf;Fh;Md; mjpfg;gl;rk; ehd;F kidtpfs; tiu kze;J nfhs;s> mJTk; mth;fis rkkhfTk; ePjkhfTk; elj;jNtz;Lk; vd;w fLk; epge;jidapd; fPo;> mDkjpj;Js;sJ. jpUf;Fh;Md; gyjhukzj;ij filg;gpbf;f typAWj;JfpwJ vd;Nwh my;yJ mJ kpfTk; Kd;khjphpahd vy;NyhUk; gpd;gw;wpahfNtz;ba gof;fk; vd;W fUJtjhfNth vtUk; jtwhf Ghpe;J nfhs;sf;$lhJ.  jpUf;Fh;Md; gyjhukzj;ij rfpj;Jf;nfhz;Ls;sJ my;yJ mDkjpj;Js;sJ mt;tsTjhd;. mJTk; Vd;?  Vd; gyjhukzk; mDkjpf;fg;gl;lJ? gjpy; kpfTk; vspJ:  gyjhu kzj;ij eph;g;ge;jpf;Fk; r%f kw;Wk; xOf;f fhuzq;fs; nfhz;l rpy Neuq;fs;> rpy re;jh;g;gq;fs; ,Uf;fNt nra;fpd;wd vd;gJjhd; mjw;Fhpa gjpyhFk;. Nkw;fhZk; jpUkiwtrdk; Fwpg;gpLtJ Nghy; mehijfs;> tpjitfs; MfpNahUf;F r%fk; nra;a Ntz;ba flikfspy; gyjhukzk; vj;jifa gq;F tfpf;fpwJ vd;gij ftdpf;fhky; mij jdpahf Ghpe;Jnfhs;tnjd;gJ ,ayhj xd;whFk;. vy;yh ,lq;fSf;Fk; fhyq;fSf;Fk; nghUj;jkhd khh;f;fkhd ,];yhk; ,itfs; Nghd;w eph;g;ge;jpf;Fk; R{o;epiyfis myl;rpag;gLj;jNt KbahJ.

kdpj r%fq;fspy; gytw;wpy; ngz;fs; Mz;fis tpl mjpfkhf ,Uf;fpd;wdh;.  mnkhpf;fhtpy; Mz;fis tpl Fiwe;j gl;rk; vl;L kpy;ypad; ngz;fs; mjpfkhf ,Uf;fpd;wdh;.  Fapdh Nghd;w ehLfspy; 100 Mz;fSf;F 122 ngz;fs; tPjk; ,Uf;fpd;wdh;. jhd;]hdpahtpy; 100 ngz;fSf;F 95.1 Mz;fNs ,Uf;fpd;wdh;. ,g;gb rkkw;w ghy; tpfpjk; ,Uf;Fk; NghJ xU r%fk; vg;gb ele;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;?  mjw;F gy jPh;Tfs;> rpyh; rd;dpahrj;ijiAk; rpyh; ngz; rpRf;nfhiyiaAk; rpghhpR nra;fpd;wdh;. (,d;iwa cyfpy; ,J ele;J nfhz;Ljhd; tUfpd;wJ}) tpgr;rhuk;> jpUkzkpd;wp clYwT nfhs;Sjy;> Xhpdg;Gzh;r;rp Nghd;witfs; midj;ijAk; r%fk;> rfpj;Jf;nfhs;tJjhd; xNu top vd kw;Wk; rpyh; epidf;fpd;wdh;.  gy Mg;gphpf;f r%fj;ijg; Nghd;witfSf;Nfh kpfTk; fz;zpaj;jpw;Fhpa top vd;gJ vJntdpy; gyjhukzj;ij fyhr;rhuhPjpapy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sj;jf;f xd;whfTk; r%f hPjpapy; kjpg;gpw;Fhpa KiwahfTk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;tJNkahFk;. kw;w fyhr;rhuj;ij Nrh;e;j ngz;fs; gyjhukzj;ij jq;fspd; ,optpd; milahskhf fUJtjpy;iy vd;gij Nkw;fj;jpa cyfk; mbf;fb jtwhfGhpe;J nfhs;fpd;wJ vd;gNj gpur;idahFk;.  cjhuzkhf> gy Mg;gphpf;f ngz;fs; mth;fs; fpwp];jth;fNsh my;yJ K];ypk;fNsh my;yJ kw;w kjq;fisr; rhh;e;jth;fNsh Vw;fdNt jpUkzkhfp jhd; nghUg;Gs;s fztd; vd nray;gl;Lf;fhl;ba MizNa jpUkzk; nra;a mjpfk; tpUk;Gfpd;wdh;.  jhq;fs; jdpikia czuhjpUg;gjw;fhf ,uz;lhk; fy;ahzk; nra;J nfhs;Sk;gb gy Mg;gphpf;f kidtpfs; jq;fs; fztid J}z;Lfpd;wdh;.56 ie[Phpahtpd; ,uz;lhk; nghpa efuj;jpy; 15 Kjy; 59 taJ tiuAs;s Rkhh; 6000 ngz;fsplk;  elj;jg;gl;l Gs;sptptuj;jpd;gb  mth;fspy; 60 rjtpfpjk; Ngh; jq;fs; fztd;khh;fs; ,uz;lhk; jpUkzk; nra;tij nghpJk; tpUk;Gfpd;wdh;. 23 rjtpfpjk; ngz;fNs jq;fs; fztd;khh;fs; ,uz;lhk; kzk; nra;tij tpUk;ghky; Nfhgpg;gth;fshthh;fs;. nfd;ahtpy; elj;jg;gl;l Gs;sptptuj;jpd;gb 67 rjtpfpjk; ngz;fs; gyjhukzj;ij rhpahdnjdNt fUJfpd;wdh;.  nfd;ahtpd; fpuhkg;Gwq;fspy; elj;jg;gl;l Gs;sptptuj;jpd;gb 27 ngz;fspy; 25 Ngh; xUjhukzj;ij tpl gyjhukzk; kpfr; rpwe;jJ vdf; fUjpdh;.  $l ,Uf;Fk; rf;fsj;jpfs; xj;Jioj;jhy; gyjhukzk; kfpo;r;rpfukhdjhfTk; gaDs;sjhfTk; ,Uf;FnkdTk; ,e;jg;ngz;fs; czh;e;Js;sdh;. rpy Gul;lh];lhz;L rh;r;RfSk; $l mij rfpj;Jf;nfhs;sf;$ba mstpw;F ngUk;ghyhd Mg;gphpf;f r%fj;jpy; gyjhukzk; kpfTk; khpahijf;Fhpa xU Kiwahf MfpAs;sJ. fztd; kidtpf;fpilNaAs;s md;gpd; ntspg;ghl;bw;F xU Kd;khjphpahf Vfjhukzk; ,Uf;fyhnkd;whYk;> rpy r%fq;fspy; gyjhukzk; r%fhPjpahf Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l xd;W vd;gijAk; gyjhukzk; fpwp];jtj;jpw;F vjpuhdJ vd;w ek;gpf;if ,dpNkYk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sj;jf;fjy;y vd;w fUjg;gLtijAk; rh;r; Vw;Wf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd nfd;ahtpYs;s Mq;fpypf;fd; rh;r;rirr; Nrh;e;j xU gp~g; $wpdhh;.58 Mg;gphpf;fhtpd; gyjhu kzj;ij gw;wp ftdkhf Muha;e;;j Mq;fpypf;f rh;r;ir Nrh;e;j Gdpj Nltpl; fpl;lhhp mth;fs; tpthfuj;J nra;J kPz;Lk; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;Sk; Kiwia tpl> ,jdhy; iftplg;gl;l kidtp Foe;ijfs; MfpNahiu ftdj;jpy; nfhs;Sk; NghJ> gyjhu kznkd;gJ fpwp];jt nfhs;iffSf;F kpfTk; cfe;jJ vd jPh;khdpj;Js;shh;.59  Nkw;fj;jpa ehLfspy; gy tUlq;fs; tho;e;j gpwFk; gyjhukzj;jpw;nfjpuhf ve;jtpj Ml;NrgKk; ,y;yhj gy cah; fy;tp fw;w Mg;gphpf;f kidtpfis ehd; jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy; ed;fwpNtd;.  mnkhpf;fhtpy; tho;e;J tUk; mth;fspy; xUj;jp> Foe;ijfis tsh;g;gjpy; mtSf;F JizahapUf;Fk; tifapy;> ,uz;lhk; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;Sk;gb fztid tw;GWj;Jfpd;whs;.

rkkw;w ghy; tpfpj gpur;id Nghh;f;fhyq;fspy; kpfTk; rpf;fyhfpd;wJ.  mnkhpf;f G+h;tpf nrt;tpe;jpah;fs; Aj;j fhyj;jpy; kpf mjpf Vw;wj;jho;T kpf;f ghy; tpfpjj;jpdhy; kpfTk; Jd;gj;jpw;Fs;shfpdh;. kpfTk; cah;e;j me;j];jpypUe;j ,e;j Fyg; ngz;fs;> ,jd; tpisthf> nfl;l Mgrkhd fhhpaq;fspy; <LgLtjw;F khwhf gyjhukzj;ij jq;fSf;F rpwe;j ghJfhg;gspf;Fk; xd;whf Vw;Wf;nfhz;ldh;.  mq;F te;Njwpa mnkhpf;fh;fNsh> ,j;jifa Vw;wj;jho;T kpf;f ghy;tpfpjj;jpd; NghJ NtW vd;d Kiwia filg;gpbg;gJ vd;gij $whky;> gyjhukz eilKiwia khj;jpuk; fhl;Lkpuhz;bj;jdk; vd;W fz;ldk; nra;jdh;.60 ,uz;lhk; cyfg;NghUf;Fg;gpd;> n[h;kdpapy; khj;jpuk; Mz;fis tpl ngz;fs; 7>300>000 mjpfkhfapUe;jdh; (mth;fspy; 3.3 kpy;ypad; Ngh; tpjitfs;.)  20 tajpypUe;J 30 tajpw;Fl;lth;fspy; 100 Mz;fSf;F 167 ngz;fs; ,Ue;jdh;.61 ,j;jifa gy ngz;fSf;F xU Mz; Njhodhf khj;jpuky;yhky; Kd;ndg;NghJk; Vw;gl;buhj Jd;gk; f~;lk; Mfpait Vw;gl;bUf;Fk; ,f;fhy fl;lj;jpy; FLk;gj;jpw;F Njitahdij mspj;J ghJfhf;ff;$bath;fs; Njitg;gl;ldh;.  If;fpa ,uhZt tPuh;fs; ,e;jg; ngz;fspd; ,j;jifa gytPdj;ij ed;F gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;ldh;.  gy ,sk; ngz;fSk; tpjitfSk; ,e;j Mf;ukpg;Gg; gilAld; (FLk;gj; NjitfSf;fhf) fl;Lg;ghlw;w clYwT nfhz;ldh;.  gy mnkhpf;f> gphpl;ld; tPuh;fs; jhq;fs; ngWk; ,e;j Rfj;jpw;F gjpyhf rpnful;Lf;fs;> kpl;lha;fs;> nuhl;bfs; Mfpatw;iw nfhLj;jdh;.  ,e;j md;dpah;fs; nfhLj;j nghUl;fshy; Foe;ijfs; kpfTk; kfpo;e;jdh;.  kw;w Foe;ijfSf;F fpilf;Fk; ,e;jg; nghUl;fis fz;l xU gj;J taJg;igad; jd; jha; ,dpNky; grpf;nfhLikf;F Mshfhky; ,Ug;gjw;fhf mtSf;Fk; xU Mq;fpNyad; ,Ue;jhy; ed;whfapUf;Fk; vd kdg;G+h;tkhf Mirg;gl;lhd;.62  ,e;jr; re;jh;gj;jpy; ehk; ek; kdr;rhl;rpia njhl;L Nfl;f Ntz;Lk;: ,ij tpl ngz;fSf;F fz;zpakspg;gJ vJ?  rptg;gpe;jpah;fspy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l khpahijf;Fhpa ,uz;lhk; kidtpahf ,Ug;gJ ngz;Zf;F fz;zpakspg;gjh my;yJ ehfhpfIf;fpa ,uhZtj;jpdhplk; ,Ue;jJ Nghy;  tpgr;rhhpahf ,Ug;gJ ey;yjh?  NtW thh;j;ijfspy; nrhy;tjdhy;> jpUf;Fh;Md; Kd;itf;Fk; jPh;T ngz;Zf;F fz;zpakspg;gjh my;yJ Nuhk rhk;uh[;aj;jpd; fyhr;rhu mbg;gilapyike;j ,iwapay; ngz;Zf;F fz;zpakspg;gjh?

1948 Mk; Mz;by; kpA+dpr;rpy; ele;j mfpycyf ,isQh;fs; khehl;by; kpfTk; Vw;wj;jho;T kpf;f ghy;tpfpjj;jhy; Vw;gLk; gpur;id gw;wp tpthjpf;fg;gl;lJ.  ve;j jPh;tpw;Fk; tu Kbatpy;iy vd;gJ mth;fSf;F njspthfj; njhpe;jTld;> khehl;by; fye;J nfhz;l rpyh; gyjhukzj;ij rpwe;j jPh;thf Kd;itj;jdh;.  ,ijf;Nfl;lJk; Muk;gj;jpy; khehl;bw;F te;Njhh; mjph;r;rpf;Fk; ntWg;gpw;FKs;shapdh;.  MapDk;> ,ij ftdkhf Muha;e;j khehl;bdh; ,J xd;Wjhd; rhj;jpakhd jPh;T vd;gij xg;Gf;nfhz;ldh;.  ,Wjpahf> khehl;bd; ,Wjpj;jPh;khdq;fspy; xd;whf gyjhukzKk; Nrh;f;fg;gl;lJ.63  

ngUk; mopTfis cz;lhf;ff;$ba MAjq;fis Kd;ndg;NghJk; ,y;yhj mstpw;F cyf ehLfs; jd;dfj;Nj nfhz;Ls;sd.  INuhg;gpa rh;r;Rfs; ,g;nghONjh gpwNfh gyjhukzj;ij xNu jPh;thf Vw;Wf;nfhs;tijj;jtpu NtW topapUf;fhJ.   ghjh; `py;Nkd; ,e;j cz;ikia kpfTk; Mo;e;J rpe;jidf;Fg;gpwF mq;fPfhpj;NjAs;shh;>  kdpj $l;Lf;nfhiy njhopw; El;gq;fs; (epA+f;ypah;> gahyh[pfy;> nfkpfy;...) ghy; tpfpjj;jpy; kpfg;ngUk; Vw;wj;jho;Tfis Vw;gLj;jptpLk; vd;gJ vjph;ghh;f;ff;$baNj.  mg;nghOJ gyjhukz Kiwjhd; kdpj r%fk; caph;gpioj;jpUf;f mtrpakhd Kiwahf MfptpLk;... Kd;ida gof;fk; rl;lk; Mfpatw;wpw;F vjpuhf gyjhukzk;jhd; ,ay;gpw;Fk; xOf;fkhz;GfSf;Fk; xj;jJ vd;w kdtpUg;gk; mj;jifa R+o;epiyfspy; mjpfg;gl;LtpLk;.  mJ Nghd;w R+o;epiyfspy; ,iwapay; ty;Yeh;fSk; rh;r; jiyth;fSk; ,e;j Gjpa gyjhukz nfhs;ifia epahag;gLj;Jk; tpjj;jpy; tYthd fhuzq;fisAk; iggps; Mjhuq;fisAk; Kd;itg;gh;.64 

,d;W tiu> etPd r%fq;fspy; epytptUk; xU rpy r%ff;NfLfSf;fhd rpwe;j jPh;thf gyjhukzk; ,Ue;J tUfpd;wJ.  gyjhukzj;jpw;F jUk; mDkjpapd; %yk; epiwNtw;wg;gl Ntz;ba jpUkiwFh;Md; Fwpg;gpLk; r%ff;flikfs; (epiwNtw;wg;glhky;) Mg;gphpf;fhit tpl Nkw;fj;jpa r%fq;fspy; mjpfkhf fhzg;gLfpd;wd.  cjhuzkhf> fUg;gh; rKjhaj;jpy; kpf mjpf ghy;tpfpjk; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.  Mz;fspy; ,UgJ Ngh;fspy; xUth; 21 taijailAk; Kd;Ng ,we;J tpLfpd;wdh;.  20 Kjy; 35 tajpw;Fl;gl;lth;fspy;> xUtUf;nfhUth; nfhiynra;J nfhs;tNj rhtpw;F Kf;fpa fhuzkhf ,Ue;J tUfpd;wJ.65 NkYk;> gy fUg;G Mz;fs; Ntiy fpilf;fhjth;fshfTk;> n[apypYk; Nghijg;gof;fj;jpw;F mbikahfpAKs;sdh;.66 ,jd; tpisthf ehd;fpy; xU fUg;Gg; ngz; 40 tajpYk; $l jpUkzkhfhky;  ,Uf;fpd;wdh;. nts;isahplj;jpy; ,e;j tpfpjk; gj;jpy; xd;W. 67  NkYk; gy fUg;G ngz;fs; ,UgJ tajpw;F Kd;dNuNa (jpUkz ge;jkpd;wp fh;g;gkhfp) xw;iw jhahf (-Kiwahd jfg;gdpy;yhky;) Mfp tpLfpd;whh;fs;. mth;fs; jq;fspd; Njitifis G+h;j;jp nra;tjw;fhf NtW Ml;fis rhh;e;J epw;f Ntz;bajpUf;fpwJ. ,j;jifa Jd;g R+o;epiyfspd; tpisthf gy fUj;j ngz;fs; Mis gfph;e;J nfhs;Sjy; vd;gjpy; <Lgl;L tpLfpd;wdh;. mjhtJ> Mjutw;w ,e;j fUj;j ngz;fs; jpUkzkhdth;fSld; fs;s cwT itj;Jf;nfhs;fpd;wdh;.  jq;fspd; fztid NtW ngz;fSk; gq;F Nghl;Lf;nfhs;fpwhh;fs; vd;w ,e;j tprak; ngUk;ghYk; mth;fspd; kidtpfSf;F njhpahky; Nghfpd;wJ.  Mg;gphpf;f topapyhd mnkhpf;f r%fj;jpdhpd; Mis gq;FNghLjy; vDk; ,e;j gpur;idia cw;W Nehf;fp tUk; rpyh;> mnkhpf;f r%fj;jpy; gue;j rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; nra;ag;gLk; tiuapyhtJ> ,e;j fUj;j Mz;fs; FiwT gpur;idf;F jw;fhypf jPh;thf rk;kjg;gl;l gyjhukzj;ij jPtpukhf ghpe;Jiuf;fpd;wdh;.69 rk;kjg;gl;l gyjhukzk; vd;gJ vd;dntdpy; kidtpf;Fk; nkhj;jj;jpy; r%fj;jpw;Fk; jPq;F tpistpf;ff;$ba jw;NghJ ele;J tUk; Mis gq;fpLk; ,ufrpa Kiwf;F vjpuhf gyjhukznkd;gJ r%fj;jpy; mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl xd;whf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;;  NkYk; mjpy; rk;ke;jg;gl;l midthpd; rk;kjKk; Ntz;Lk; vd;gjhFk;. Mg;gphpf;f top mnkhpf;f fUg;gh;fspd; Miz gq;fpLjy; gpur;idjhd; gpyhnjy;gpahtpYs;s nlk;gpy; gy;fiyf;fiyf;fofj;jpy; 27 [dthp 1993 md;W ele;j fUj;juq;fpd; Kf;fpa> rpwg;gpw;Fhpa Ngr;rhsh;fs; miof;fg;gl;oUe;j> jiyg;ghf ,Ue;jJ.70 ,e;jg; gpur;idf;Fhpa rhpahd jPh;thf gyjhukzj;ij rpy Ngr;rhsh;fs; Kd;itj;jdh;. gyjhukzk; r%fj;jpy;> Fwpg;ghf tpgr;rhuj;ijAk; itg;ghl;bfisAk; mDkjpf;Fk; r%fj;jpy;> jilnra;ag;glf;$lhJ vd $wpdh;. Mg;gphpf;fhtpy; kpfTk; nghWg;ghd Kiwapy; filg;gpbf;fg;gl;L Muthukhd tuNtw;g;ig ngw;WtUk; gyjhukzj;ij Mg;gphpf;f mnkhpf;fh;fs; fw;Wf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd $l;lj;jpw;F te;jpUe;j xU ngz; fUj;J njhptpj;jhh;.

Nuhkd; fj;Njhypf;fj;ij rhh;e;j gpypg; fpy;g;iul; vDk; mnkhpf;f kdpjtpay; Muha;r;rpahsh; jd;Dila rpe;jidiaj; J}z;Lk; ek; fhyj;jpw;F gyjhukzk; vd;w Gj;jfj;jpy; mnkhpf;f rKfj;jpy; nkhj;jj;jpy; epfOk; rpy r%fj;jPikfSf;F rhpahd jPh;thf gyjhukzj;ij Kd;itj;Js;shh;. ngUk;ghyhd rkaq;fspy; tpthfuj;Jf;fSf;F> mjd; tpisthy; Foe;ijfSf;F Vw;gLk; ghjpg;ig jLf;Fk; kpfr;rpwe;j jPh;thf gyjhukzk; tpsq;Fk; vd mth; thjpf;fpd;whh;.  jpUkzj;jpw;F gpwF elf;Fk; fs;s cwTfNs mnkhpf;f r%fj;jpy; ngUk;ghyhd tpthfuj;jpw;F fhuzkhf cs;sd vd;gij mth; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpwhh;.  ,e;j fs;s cwT (Ke;jpa Jizia) tpthfuj;J nra;tjpy; Kbtij tpl ,d;DnkhU jpUkzj;jpy; KbAkhfpy;> mJ (Ke;jpa Jizapd;) Foe;ijfSf;F kpfTk; rpwe;jjhf ,Uf;Fk;. ,j;jifa R+o;epiyfspy; FLk;gk; gphpe;J ,y;yhkyhfp NghtJjhd; top vd;wpUg;gij tpl FLk;gk; xd;wpize;J ,Ue;jhy; mf;FLk;gj;jpd; %yk; Foe;ijfis ey;y Kiwapy; ftdpj;jpl KbAk; vd fpy;g;iul; $Wfpwhh;. NkYk;> tajhfpAk; jpUkzkhfh Kbahky; ,Uf;Fk; ngz;fs; Nghd;wth;fSf;Fk; Miz gq;fpLjy; Kiwapy; <Lgl;bUf;Fk; Mg;gphpf;f mnkhpf;fh;fs; Nghd;wth;fSf;Fk; mJ kpfTk; gadspf;ff;$bajhf ,Uf;Fk; vd fpy;g;iul; MNyhrid njhptpf;fpwhh;. Ngf;fhpapYs;s fypNghh;dpah gy;fiyf;fofj;jpy; gbf;Fk; khzth;fspilNa 1987 Mk; Mz;L xU nra;jpg;gj;jphpf;if jpUkzk; nra;a jFjpAs;s Mz;fs; Fiwthf ,Uf;Fk; epiyapy; gyjhu kzj;ij rl;lk; mDkjpf;fyhkh? vd;w jiyg;gpy; fUj;Jf;fzpg;G elj;jpaJ. ,e;j gyjhukz fUj;ij ngUk;ghYk; midj;J khzt khztpfSNk Vw;Wf;nfhz;ldh;.  gyjhukzk; jd;Dila czh;T kw;Wk; ngsjPf Njitfis epiwNtw;wp> xNu kidtpahapUg;gjpdhy; fpilf;Fk; Rje;jpuj;ij tpl mjpf Rje;jpuj;ij mspf;Fk; vd xU khztp $wpdhh;.72  mnkhpf;fhtpy; ,d;Dk; gyjhukzj;ij mDrhpj;J tUk; mbg;gilthj rpy Nkhh;Nkd; ngz;fSk; ,Nj thjj;ijNa Kd;itf;fpd;wdh;.  jq;fspd; rf Njhop kidtpfSk; jhq;fSk; xUthpd; Foe;ijfis kw;wth;fs; ftdpj;Jf;nfhs;s Kbtjhy; gyjhukznkd;gJ ngz;fs; jq;fspd; Ntiyia tpl Ntz;ba mtrpakpy;yhky; njhlh;e;J nra;J tuTk; Foe;ijfis ftdpg;gjw;Fk; kpfr;rpwe;j Kd;khjphpahd Kiwnad mth;fs; ek;Gfpwhh;fs;.

gyjhukznkd;gJ ,];yhj;jpy; xUtUf;nfhUth; rk;kjg;gl;L nra;tNjahFk;. fy;ahzkhd xUtiu fy;ahzk; nra;Ak;gb ve;jg;ngz;izAk; ahUk; eph;g;ge;jpf;f KbahJ.  NkYk;> jhd; kzf;Fk; fztd; NtnwhU ngz;iz kzf;ff;$lhJ vd epge;jid tpjpf;fTk; kidtpahfg;Nghfpd;wtSf;F chpikAz;L.74  ,jw;F vjpuhf> iggps; rpy Neuq;fspy; eph;g;ge;j gyjhukzj;jpw;F mDkjpf;fpwJ.  Foe;ijaw;w tpjit kuzpj;j fztdpd; rNfhjuid> mtd; jpUkzkhdtdhfp ,Ue;jhy; $l> mtspd; rk;kjk; ,Ue;jhYk; ,y;yhtpl;lhYk;> kzf;f Ntz;Lnkd mJ $WfpwJ. (Mjpahfkk; 38: 8-10) (tpjitapd; Jd;gepiyfs; vd;w gFjp fhz;f)

,d;iwa K];ypk; r%fq;fs; gytw;wpy;> mq;Nf ghy; tpfpj Vw;wj;jho;Tfs; kpf mjpfkhf ,y;yhkypUg;gjhy;> gyjhukzk; kpfTk; FiwT vd;gijAk; ,q;Nf ehk; ftdpf;fNtz;Lk;. Nkw;fj;jpa cyfpy; jpUkzj;jpw;fg;ghYk; fs;s cwT itj;jpUg;gth;fspd; vz;zpf;ifia tpl K];ypk; cyfpy; gyjhukzk; nra;jpUg;gth;fspd; vz;zpf;if kpf kpf Fiwntd mWjpapl;L $wpl KbAk;.  NtW thh;j;ijfspy; nrhy;tjdhy;> K];ypk; cyfpYs;s Mz;fs; Nkw;fj;jpa Mz;fis tpl kpf mjpfk; fLikahd xUjhukzthjpfshf ,Uf;fpwhh;fs; vd;Nw $w Ntz;Lk;.

Gfo;ngw;w fpwp];jt mwpQh; gpy;yp fpu`hk; ,e;j cz;ikia Vw;Wf;nfhz;Ls;shh;: fpwp];jtkjk; gyjhukzj;ij nghWj;Jg; NghfKbahJ.  jw;fhy fpwp];jtkjk; mij nghWj;Jg;Nghftpy;iynadpy; mJ mjw;F mopitNa nfhz;L tUk;.  r%fj;jPikfSf;F ghpfhukhf ,];yhk; gyjhukzj;ij mDkjpj;Js;sJ ,J rk;ge;jkhf kdpj ,ay;G mtrpag;gLk; rpy Rje;jpuq;fis> Mdhy; kpfTk; fLikahf tiuaWf;fg;gl;l rl;lj;jpd; fPNoNa> mDkjpj;Js;sJ.  jhq;fs; xUjhukzthjpfs; vd fpwp];jt ehLfs; kpfTk; ntWkNd fhl;bf;nfhs;fpd;wd. Mdhy; mitfs; gyjhukzj;ijNa gpd;gw;Wfpd;wdh;.  Nkw;fj;jpa r%fj;jpy; eilngWk; itg;Gf;fis gw;wp mwpahjth; ahUkpy;iy.  ,J tpraj;jpy; ,];yhk; mbg;gilapy; epahakhd khh;f;fk;. mJ K];ypik> Njitg;gl;lhy;> ,uz;lhk; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;s mDkjpf;fpwJ.  Mdhy;> xOf;fk; rpie;jplhky; ghJfhg;ghf ,Uf;Fk; tifapy; vy;yhtpj fs;s cwTfisAk; fLikahf jil nra;Js;sJ.75  

gy K];ypky;yhj kw;Wk; K];ypk; ehLfs; gyjhukzj;ij jilnra;Js;sd vd;gJ kpfTk; RitahdjhFk;. ,uz;lhk; jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;tJ> Kjy; kidtpapd; rk;kjk; nUe;jhy; $l> rl;l tpNuhjkhdjhFk;. Mdhy; kidtpia njhpe;Njh njhpahkNyh Vkhw;WtJ ,e;jr; rl;lq;fisg; nghWj;j tiu Kw;wpYk; mDkjpf;fg;gl;l xd;Nw]   vg;gbg;gl;l Kuz;ghl;bw;F gpd;dpUf;Fk; rl;lQhdk;jhd; vd;d?  rl;lk; Vkhw;wpw;F ntFkjpaspf;fTk; Neh;ikia jz;bf;fTk;jhd; naw;wg;gl;Ls;sjh?  ,J etPd ehfhpf r%fj;jpd; Ghpe;J nfhs;sg;glKbahj Kuz;ghLfspy; xd;NwahFk;.

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         jpiu (gh;jh - `p[hg;)

,Wjpahf> ngz;fspd; mbikj;jdk; mlf;FKiwj;jdk; Mfpatw;wpd; kpfg;ngUk; milahsk; vd Nkw;fj;jpa cyfpdhy; fUjg;gLk; jpiu (gh;jh-`p[hg;) gw;wp rw;W ghh;g;Nghk;. gh;jh vd;gJ A+j-fpwp];jt kjj;jpy; ,y;iy vd;gJ cz;ikah? mJ gw;wp Mjhuq;fis Kjypy; ghh;f;fyhk;.  lhf;lh; nkdhnfk; gpNuah; (iggps; ,yf;fpag; Nguhrphpah;> Na~pth gy;fiyf;fofk;) jd;Dila ug;ghdpa E}y;fspy; ngz;fs; vd;w Gj;jfj;jpy; A+jg;ngz;fs; ntspNa nry;Yk; NghJ jiyia %bf;nfhz;L nry;thh;fs;; rpy rkaq;fspy; Kfj;ijAk; %bf;nfhz;L xU fz;iz khj;jpuk; jpwe;jpUg;ghh;fs; vd $Wfpwhh;.76  rpy Guhjhd mwpQh;fspd; thf;Ffis mth; Nfhbl;L fhl;Lfpwhh;> ,];uhaPypag; ngz;fs; jiyia jpwe;j tz;zk; elf;ff;$lhJ  jd; kidtpapd; jiyKbia kw;wth;fis ghh;f;f tpLgtd; rgpf;fg;gLthdhf....  myq;fhuj;jpw;fhf jiyKbia njhq;ftpLgts; tWikia tutoitg;gtshths;  gpuhh;j;jidfisNah my;yJ mUs;nkhopfisNah jiyiaj; jpwe;jpUf;Fk; ngz;zpd; Kd;dhy; XJtij ug;ghdpa rl;lk; jLf;fpwJ.  Vnddpy; jiyia jpwe;jpUg;gJ eph;thzkhf ,Ug;gJ Nghy; fzpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.77  jd;daj;jpad; vd;w fhyj;jpd; NghJ jiyia %lhj ngz; fw;igNa Nftyg;gLj;jpatshf fUjg;gl;lhs; vd lhf;lh; g;Nuah; NkYk; Fwpg;gpLfpwhh;. mts; jiy jpwe;jpUe;jhy; ,f;Fw;wj;jpw;fhf mtSf;F ehD]W ]`]pk; mguhjk; Nghlg;glyhk;.  Mdhy; ,e;j A+jg; ngz;fspd; ,e;j jpiu vg;nghOJk; fw;gpd; milahskhf fUjg;gltpy;iy vd lhf;lh; g;Nuah; tpsf;Ffpwhh;.  rpy Neuq;fspy; mJ fw;ig Fwpg;gij tpl cah;e;j epiyiaAk; trjpiaANk Fwpj;jJ. fz;zpakpf;f ngz;fspd; fz;zpaj;jpw;Fk; cah;Tf;Fk; milahskhf jpiu jpfo;e;jJ.  mts; kw;wth;fs; Gf Kbahj jd; fztdpd; Gdpjnrhj;J vd;gjpw;F milahskhfTk; mJ jpfo;e;jJ. 

jpiu ngz;zpd; Rakhpahij kw;Wk; r%f me;j];ij Fwpj;jJ.  fPo;rhjpg;ngz;fs; jq;fis Nky;rhjpg;ngz;fshf fhl;bf;nfhs;tjw;fhf mbf;fb jpiuia mzpe;J te;jdh;.  jpiu vd;gJ fz;zpaj;jpd; milahsk; vd;gjhy;jhd; A+j rKfj;jpy; cs;s tpgr;rhhpfs; mij mzpa mDkjpf;fg;gltpy;iy.  ,Ug;gpDk;> tpgr;rhhpfs; khpahijf;Fhpath;fshf Njhw;wkspf;Fk; nghUl;L NtW tpN~khd jiykiwit mzpe;J te;jdh;.79 INuhg;ghtpYs;s A+jg;ngz;fs; gj;njhd;gjhk; E}w;whz;L tiu> mth;fspd; tho;f;if mth;fisr; Rw;wpAs;s cyf fyhr;rhuj;Jld; fye;J NghFk; fhyk; tiu> jpiuia mzpe;Nj te;jdh;. INuhg;gpa tho;f;ifapd; ntspg;Gw mOj;jk; mth;fs; jiyia jpwe;J elkhl eph;g;ge;jpj;jJ.  jq;fspd; toikahd jiykiwit mzptjw;Fg; gjpyhf   tpf; mzptJ kpfTk; nrsfhpakhdJ vdf;fz;ldh;.  ,d;W> kpfTk; gf;jpAs;s A+jg;ngz;fs; $l Myaj;jpyy;yhJ NtW vq;Fk; jiyia kiwg;gjpy;iy.80 mth;fspy; `h]pjpf; gphpitr; Nghd;w rpyh; ,d;dKk; tpf;if cgNahfpj;J tUfpd;wdh;.81

,J rk;ge;jkhf fpwp];jt eilKiw vd;d?   fj;Njhypf;f ngz; Jwtpfs; gy E}w;whz;Lfshf jiyia kiwj;J tUfpd;wdh; vd;gJ ed;F mwpag;gl;lNj.  Gdpj gTy; jpiuiag;gw;wp kpfTk; Ritahd nra;jpia $Wfpwhh;: 

xt;nthU GU~Df;Fk; fpwp];J jiyahapUf;fpwhnwd;Wk;> fpwp];JTf;Fj; Njtd; jiyahapUf;fpwhnud;Wk; ePq;fs; mwpaNtz;Lnkd;W tpUk;GfpNwd;.  n[gk;gz;ZfpwNghjhtJ> jPh;f;fjhprdk; nrhy;YfpwNghjhtJ> jd; jiyia %bf;nfhz;bUf;fpw ve;jg; GU~Dk; jd; jiyiaf; fdtPdg;gLj;Jfpwhd;.  n[gk; gz;ZfpwNghjhtJ> jPh;f;fjhprdk; nrhy;YfpwNghjhtJ> jd; jiyia %bf;nfhs;shjpUf;fpw ve;j ];jphPAk; jd; jiyiaf; fdtPdg;gLj;Jfpwhs;:  mJ mtSf;Fj; jiy rpiuf;fg;gl;lJ NghypUf;FNk.  ];jphPahdts; Kf;fhbl;Lf; nfhs;shtpl;lhy; jiykapiuAk; fj;jhpj;Jg;Nghlf;flts;:  jiykaph; fj;jhpf;fg;gLfpwJk; rpiuf;fg;gLfpwJk; ];jphPf;F ntl;fkhdhy; Kf;fhbl;Lf;nfhz;bUf;ff; flts;. GU~dhdtd; NjtDila rhaYk; kfpikAkhapUf;fpwgbahy;> jd; jiyia %bf;nfhs;sNtz;Ltjpy;iy:  ];jphpahdts; GU~Dila kfpikahapUf;fpwhs;.  GU~d; ];jphPapypUe;J Njhd;wpdty;y> ];jphPNa GU~dpypUe;J Njhd;wpdts;.  GU~d; ]jphPf;fhfr; rpU~bf;fg;gl;ltdy;y> ];jphPNa GU~Df;fhfr; rpU~;bf;fg;gl;lts;. Mifahy; (njd; fhuzkhfTk;) NkYk; J}jh;fspdpkpj;jKk; ];jphPahdts; jiyapd; Nky; (mjpfhuj;jpd; milahskhf). Kf;fhbl;Lf;nfhs;sNtz;Lk;. (1 nfhhpe;jpah; 11:3-10) 

mJ NjtDila rhayhapUf;Fk; Mzpw;F> mtdpypUe;J> mtDf;fhf gilf;fg;gl;l ngz;zpd; NkypUf;Fk; mjpfhuj;jpw;F milahsk;jhd; jpiu vd;gJjhd; jpiuf;F Gdpj gTypd; tpsf;fk;.  Gdpj jh;j;jypad; jd;Dila Gfo;ngw;w fd;dpfs; jpiuapLjy; gw;wpa fl;Liuapy; tPjpfspy; nry;Yk; NghJ jpiuazpAk; ,sk; ngz;fNs> ePq;fs; Myaj;jpYk; mzpAq;fs;> md;dpah; Kd; jpiuazpAk; ePq;fs; cq;fs; rNfhjuUf;fpilNa ,Uf;Fk; NghJk; jpiuazpAq;fs;.... vd;W $Wfpwhh;. fj;Njhypf;f rh;r;rpd; fhdhdpa rl;lq;fspy; ngz;fs; rh;r;rpypUf;Fk; NghJ jpiu mzpa Ntz;Lk; vd;w rl;lKk; xd;whFk;.82  ,d;wsT tiu Mkp~;> nkd;Ndhkpj; Nghd;w rpy fpwp];jt gphpTfs; jq;fspd; ngz;fis jpiuapl;lth;fshf itj;jpUf;fpd;wdh;.  jpiuf;F rh;r; jiyth;fs; nfhLf;Fk; fhuzk; gTybahh; Gjpa Vw;ghl;by; nfhLf;Fk; mNj fhuzk;jhd;: jiykiwT vd;gJ ngz; MZf;Fk; flTSf;Fk; mbikg;gl;bUg;gjd; milahskhFk;83  

jiykiwT vd;gJ ,];yhj;jhy; Gjpjhf fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l xd;wy;y vd;gij NkYs;s Mjhuq;fs; njspthf;Fk;. ,Ug;gpDk;> ,];yhKk; mij mq;fPfhpj;jJ.  tpRthrk; nfhz;l Mz;fSk; ngz;fSk; ghh;itia jho;j;JkhWk; fw;ig fhj;J tUkhWk; ngz;fs; jq;fspd; jiykiwit jq;fs; fOj;J khh;G Mfpad tiu ,Oj;J tplTk; ,];yhk; fl;lisapLf;fpd;wJ

(egpNa) ,iwek;gpf;if nfhz;l Mz;fsplk;> mth;fs; jq;fs; ghh;itfisg; Ngzpf; nfhs;Sk;gbAk; jq;fSila ntl;fj;jyq;fisg; ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;gbAk; ePh; $Wk;. .... NkYk; (egpNa) ,iwek;gpf;if nfhz;l ngz;fsplk; $Wk;: mth;fs; jq;fSila ghh;itfis Ngzpf; nfhs;sl;Lk;.  jq;fSila ntl;fj;jyq;fis ghJfhf;fl;Lk;: mjpypUe;J jhkhf ntspNa njhpfpd;wtw;iwj; jtpu]  NkYk;> jq;fSila khh;Gfs; kPJ jq;fs; Kd;whidiag; Nghl;Lf; nfhs;sl;Lk;. (24:30-31)

vjw;fhf jpiu mzpa Ntz;Lk;? ,ij jpUf;Fh;Md; njspthf tpsf;FfpwJ.

egpNa>  ck;Kila kidtpfsplKk; ngz;fsplKk; kw;Wk; %|kpdhd ngz;fsplKk; $WtPuhf:  mth;fs; (ntspNa mtrpaj;jpd; fhuzkhf) nry;Yk; NghJ jq;fsp;d; Ke;jhidfis jq;fspd; Nky; njhq;f tpl;Lf;nfhs;sl;Lk;.  mjdhy; mth;fs; (fz;zpakhdth;fnsd) mwpag;gl;L Jd;gj;jpw;F cs;shfhky; ,Ug;gjw;fhf. (33:59)

,Jjhd; KO tpraKNk. gpwuhy; Jd;gj;jpw;Fs;shtjpypUe;J ngz;fis jpiu ghJfhf;fpwJ. jpiuapd; KO Nehf;fNk ghJfhg;G vd;gjw;fhfj;jhd;.  ,];yhkpa jpiu> fpwp];jt jpiuiag; Nghyy;yhky; ngz;zpd; Nky; MZf;Fhpa mjpfhuj;jpd; milahsNkh my;yJ ngz; MZf;F mbik vd;gjw;fhd milahsKk; my;y.  ,];yhkpa jpiu A+jg;ngz;fspd; jpiuiag; Nghyy;yhky; nry;tr; nrOg;gpd; milahsNkh my;yJ rpy jpUkzkhd cah;e;j ngz;fspd; jdpg;gl;l jd;ikiaNah fhz;gpg;gJky;y.  ,];yhkpa jpiunad;gJ ngz;fs; jq;fis ghJfhf;Fk; Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf mzpag;gLk; xOf;fj;jpd; milahsNk. e~;lg;gl;l gpwF tUj;jg;gl;Lf;nfhz;bUg;gij tpl vg;nghOJk; ghJfhg;ghd Kiwapy; ,Ue;J nfhs;tJ rpwe;jJ vd;gJjhd; ,];yhkpa jj;JtkhFk;.  cz;ikapy; jpUf;Fh;Md; ngz;zpd; cliyAk; mts; fz;zpaj;ijAk; ghJfhg;gjpy; ve;j mstpw;F mf;fiw vLj;Js;snjdpy;> mts; kPJ vtNwDk; ngha;ahf fsq;fk; Rkj;j KaYthNuahdhy; mth;fs; kPJ fLk; eltbf;if vLf;fg;gLk; vdf; $WfpwJ:

vth;fs; fw;Gila ngz;fs; kPJ mtJ}W nrhy;yp gpd;dh;> ehd;F rhl;rpfisf; nfhz;Ltutpy;iyNah mth;fSf;F vz;gJ rhl;ilabfs; nfhLq;fs;.  ,dp> mth;fs; $Wk; rhl;rpaj;ij vd;iwf;Fk; vw;Wf;nfhs;shjPh;fs;.  NkYk;> mth;fNs jPath;fs;. (24:4)

,e;j jz;lidia fw;gopg;G Fw;wj;jpw;F iggps; je;jpUf;Fk; kpfr;rpwpa jz;lidNahL xg;gpl;Lg;ghUq;fs;:

epakpf;fg;glhj fd;dpah];jphPahfpa xU ngz;iz xUtd; fz;L> ifiag; gpbj;J mtNshl radpf;ifapy;> mth;fs; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;lhy;> mtNshl radpj;j kdpjd; ngz;zpd; jfg;gDf;F Ik;gJ nts;spf;fhirf; nfhLf;ff;fltd;:  mtd; mtisf; fw;gopj;jgbapdhy;> mts; mtDf;F kidtpahapUf;fNtz;Lk;:  mtd; cpNuhbUf;FksTk; mtisj; js;sptplf;$lhJ. (cghfkk; 22: 28:29)

,q;F ahh; cz;ikapNyNa jz;bf;fg;gLfpwhh; vd;gij xUth; rpe;jpf;fNtz;Lk;.  fw;gopj;jjw;fhf mguhjk; tpjpf;fg;gLtJ Mzh my;yJ jd;idf;fw;gopj;jtid kzf;FkhWk; mtd; rhFk; tiu mtNdhL tho eph;g;ge;jpf;fg;gLk; ngz;zh?  ,q;F Nfl;fg;gl Ntz;ba kw;nwhU Nfs;tp: ngz;Zf;F mjpf ghJfhg;gspg;gJ vJ?  jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; fLikahd Nghf;fh my;yJ iggpspd; jsh;e;j Nghf;fh?

rpyh;> Fwpg;ghf Nkw;fj;jpah;> gh;jh (ngz;iz) ghJfhf;fpwJ vd;gij Vsdk; nra;th;. fy;tpiiaAk;> ey;y gz;ghL epiwe;j eilKiwfisAk;>  fl;Lg;ghlhf nUg;gjd; mtrpaj;ijAk; gug;GtJjhd; kpfr;rpwe;j ghJfhg;G vd mth;fs; $Wth;.  mJ kpfr; rpwe;jJjhd;.  Mdhy; NghJkhdjy;y vd ehk; $WNthk;.  gz;ghL khj;jpuk; ghJfhg;G jUtjw;F NghJkhdnjd;why;> Vd; tl mnkhpf;fhtpYs;s ngz;fs; ,Ul;lhf ,Uf;Fk; njUtpy; jdpahf elg;gjw;Nfh Vd; Ml;fs; fhypahf ,Uf;Fk; fhh; epWj;Jkplq;fspy; $l elg;gjw;Nfh gag;gLfpd;wdh;?  fy;tp khj;jpuk; njw;F jPh;ntdpy;> kpfTk; kjpf;fg;gLk; FaPd;]; gy;fiyf;fofj;jpy; $l ngz;fSf;nfd jdpahf fy;Y]hp tshfj;jpw;Fs;NsNa tPl;bw;F ele;J nry;Yk; top Vd; ,Uf;fpwJ?  kdf;fl;Lg;ghL khj;jpuk; jPh;ntdpy; Vd; Ntiy nra;Akplq;fspy; ngz;fs; fhkf;fspahl;lq;fSf;F cl;gLj;jg;gLtjhf jpdKk; nra;jpfs; te;jtz;zkpUf;fpd;wd? fg;gw;gil mjpfhhpfs;> eph;thf mjpfhhpfs;> gy;fiyf;fof Nguhrpah;fs;> rl;l ty;Ydh;fs;> cah; ePjpkd;w ePjpgjpfs; NkYk; mnkhpf;f [dhgjpAk; $l fhkf;fspahl;lq;fspy; NLgl;ljhf Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;Ls;shh;fs;. Fapd;]; gy;fiyf;fofj;jpd; Od; mYtyfj;jhy; ntspaplg;gl;l rpw;Nwl;by; Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUe;j fPo;fhZk; Gs;sptptuj;ij  ehd; thrpj;j NghJ vd; fz;fisNa vd;dhy; ek;g Kbatpy;iy: 

                                                                 fdlhtpy; xt;nthU 6 epkplj;jpYk; ngz;fs; gyhj;fhug; gLj;jg;gLfpd;wdh;.

                                                                 fdlhtpYs;s %d;W ngz;fspy; xUth; jq;fspd; tho;ehspy; XU KiwapyhtJ fw;gopf;f Kaw;r;rpf;fg;gLth;.

                                                                 ehd;F ngz;fspy; xUth; jd; tho;ehspy; xUKiwapy; fw;gopf;fg;gLk; mghaj;jpy; my;yJ jpl;lkpl;L fw;gopg;gf;fg;gLk; mghaj;jpy; cs;sdh;.

                                                                 vl;by; xU ngz; fy;Y]hpapNyh my;yJ gy;fiyf;fofj;jpNyh gbj;Jf;nfhz;bUf;Fk; NghJ gyhj;fhug;gLj;jg;gLthh;.

                                                                 khl;bf;nfhs;s khl;Nlhk; vd;w mghak; ,y;iyahdhy; jhq;fs; gyhj;fhuj;jpy; NLgl;LtpLNthk; vd nfhyk;gpah gy;fiyf;fofj;jpy; elj;jg;gl;l xU Ma;tpy; 60% Mz;fs; njhptpj;jdh;.

ehk; thOk; r%fj;jpy; mbg;gilapy; VNjh jtW ,Uf;fpwJ.  r%fj;jpd; tho;f;if KiwapYk; fyhr;rhuj;jpYk; xU mbg;gilahd khw;wpYk; Kw;wpYk; mtrpakhdJ.  xOf;fhPjpahd tho;f;if kpfTk; mtrpag;gLfpd;wJ.  cilapy;> Ngr;rpy; Mz; ngz; ,UghyUila gof;ftof;fq;fspYk; xOf;fk; Ntz;Lk;.  ,y;iynadpy; kpfTk; Nkhrkhd Gs;sp tpguk; ehSf;F ehs; tsh;e;J nfhz;Nljhd; tUk; NkYk; Jujph;~;ltrkhf njd; tpiyia ngz;fs;jhd; nfhLj;J tUthh;fs;.  ,jdhy; cz;ikapy;> ehk; midtUk; Jd;gj;jpw;Fs;shfpNwhk; vd;whYk;> ek; epiy >f. fpg;ud; mth;fs; $wpaJ Nghy; ... mbia thq;fpf;nfhz;bUg;gtd; mij vz;zpf;nfhz;bUg;gtidg; Nghyy;y.84 ngz;fs; thq;Fk; mbia vz;zpf; nfhz;bUg;gth;fs; Nghd;wth;fshth;fs; Mz;fs;.  MfNt> XOf;fkhf cilazpe;J te;j fhuzj;jhy; gs;spf;$lq;fspypUe;j khztpfis ntspNaw;wpa gpuQ;R rKjhaj;ijg; Nghd;w rKjhaq;fnsy;yhk; ,Wjpapy; jdf;Nf jPq;fpioj;Jf; nfhs;fpwJ.

Mz;fSf;F ngz;fs; NkYs;s mjpfhuj;ij fhz;gpf;Fk; tifapy; fj;Njhypf;f re;epahrpg;ngz;fshy; mzpag;gLk; jiykiwit Gdpj milahsk; vd kjpf;fg;gLk; mNj Ntisapy; ghJfg;gpw;fhf K];ypk; ngz;fs; mzpAk; mNj jiykiwit mlf;FKiwapd; milahsk; vd fUjg;gLtJ ,d;iwa cyfpy; cs;s kpfg;ngUk; Mr;rhpaq;fspy; xd;whdNjahFk;.

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         KbTiu

,e;j Muha;r;rp fl;Liufis thrpj;j vy;yh K];ypk; my;yhjth;fspd; kdq;fspy; vOk; nghJthd Nfs;tp vd;dntdpy;: ,d;iwa cyfpy; thOk; K];ypk; ngz;fs; ,e;j fl;Liufspy; tpthpf;fg;gl;Ls;sgb fz;zpakhd Kiwapy;jhd; elj;jg;gLfpd;whh;fsh? vd;gJNtahFk;. ,jd; gjpy;> Jujph;~;ltrkhf> ,y;iy vd;gJjhd;. ,];yhj;jpy; ngz;fspd; me;j];J gw;wpa tpthjq;fspy; ,e;j Nfs;tp kpfTk; jtph;f;fKbahjjhf ,Ug;gjhy; ,jw;fhd gjpiy thrfh;fSf;F> mth;fs; KOikahd R{o;epiyfis Ghpe;J nfhs;Sk; tifapy;> ehk; tphpthf tpsf;fpl Ntz;Lk;.

K];ypk; rKjhaj;jpy; epytptUk; ,Jgw;wpa gy tpj;jpahrkhd eltbf;iffs; midj;ijAk;; xNu khjphpahdjhf - nghJthdjhf fUJtJ rhpahdjy;y vd;gij Kjypy; njspTgLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ngz;fs; vt;thW elj;jjg;glNtz;Lk; vd;w fUj;Njhl;lk; ,d;iwa K];ypk; cyfpy; gy tpjkhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ. ,e;j fUj;Njhl;lk; xU r%fj;jpypUe;J kw;nwhU r%fj;jpw;Fk; xU eghplkpUe;J kw;nwhU egUf;Fk; tpj;jpahrg;gLfpd;wJ.  ,Ug;gpDk; rpy nghJthd fUj;Njhl;lq;fs; njspthf fhzg;gLgitNa.  ngz;fspd; me;j];ij nghWj;jtiu ngUk;ghYk; vy;yh K];ypk; r%fq;fSNk VNjh xU tifapy; ,];yhj;jpd; nfhs;iffis tpl;L tpyfp ,Uf;fpd;wd. ngUk;ghYk; ,e;j tpyfy; ,uz;L Neh; vjph; vjph; jpirapNy MfpapUe;jpUf;fpd;wd.  KjyhtJ> fl;Lg;ghLfs; kpf;f> thioab thioahf ,Ue;J tUk; gof;fq;fSf;nfhg;g cs;sjhFk;: ,uz;lhtNjh kpfTk; Rje;jpukhdJk; Nkw;fj;jpa fyhr;rhuj;ij xl;baJkhFk;.

Kjy; tifahd $l;lk; Kd;Ndhh;fsplkpUe;J ngw;w gof;f tof;fq;fs; eilKiwfs; Mfpatw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; jq;fspd; ngz;fis elj;jpd. ,e;jg; gof;ftof;fq;fs;> rhjhuzkhf> ,];yhj;jhy; ngz;fSf;F mspf;fg;gl;l chpikfis gwpg;gitahf ,Ue;jd.  Mz;fis vt;thW elj;j Ntz;Lnkd mth;fs; tpjpKiwfis itj;jpUe;jhh;fNsh mij tpl kpfTk; khWghlhd KiwapNyNa ngz;fis elj;jpdh;.  ,e;j ghuhgl;rk; mtspd; KO tho;tpYk; njhlh;e;J epytpaJ; kfd; gpwf;Fk; NghJ Vw;gLk; kfpo;r;rpia tpl kpfTk; Fiwthd kfpo;r;rpNa kfs; gpwe;j NghJ mth;fSf;F Vw;gl;lJ. mts; fy;tpf;$lk; nry;tJk; mt;tsthf ,Uf;fhJ. FLk;gr; nrhj;jpypUe;J mtSf;F fpilf;f Ntz;ba chpikia gwpf;fg;gLths;.  mtspd; rNfhjuh;fspd; xOq;fPd eltbf;iffnsy;yhk; nghWj;Jf;nfhs;sg;gLk; mNj Ntisapy; mts; xOq;fPdkhd Kiwapy; ele;J nfhs;shkypUf;Fk; tifapy; mts; njhlh;e;J fz;fhzpf;fg;gl;L tUths;.  Mz;fs; jhq;fs; nra;jjhf ngUik $l mbj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; mNj fhhpaj;ij mts; nra;jhNsh mts; nfhy;yg;gl;Lf;$l tpLths;.  FLk;g kw;Wk; r%f tptfhuq;fspy; mts; fUj;J nrhy;tJ kpfTk; Fiwthd mstpNyNa ,Uf;Fk;.  mtspd; nrhj;Jf;fs; kw;Wk; jpUkzf;nfhilfspd; kPJ mtSf;F KOikahd mjpfhuk; ,Ue;jplhJ. xU jhahf mts; Mz; Foe;ijfisNa Nd;wpl tpUk;gpLths;.  mjdhy; r%fj;jpy; mtSf;F rpwe;j me;j];J fpilf;Fk; vd;gjw;fhf.

kw;nwhU Gwk; Nkw;fj;jpa fyhr;rhuk; kw;Wk; tho;f;if Kiwfshy; Kw;wpYk; ftug;gl;l K];ypk; r%fq;fs; (my;yJ xU r%fj;jpy; cs;s rpy gphpTfs;) cs;sd.   ,e;j r%fq;fs; Nkw;fj;jpa fyhr;rhuq;fis fz;iz %bf;nfhz;L gpd;gw;wp ,Wjpapy; mjdhy; Vw;gLk; Nkhrkhd tpisTfisAk; re;jpf;fpd;wd.  ,e;j r%fq;fspy; cs;s ngz;fspd; Kjy;> Kf;fpa Fwpf;Nfhs; jq;fspd; cly; tdg;ig mjpfg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tJjhd;.  MfNt> mts; vt;nghOJk; jd; clypd; Njhw;wk;> msT> vil Mfpait gw;wpNa rpe;jpj;Jf;nfhz;bUg;ghs;.  jd; cs;sj;ij ftdpg;gij tpl jd; cliy ftdpg;gjw;Nf mts; mjpfk; tpUk;Gfpwhs;; jd; mwpit tsg;gLj;Jtjpy; ftdk; nrYj;Jtij tpl jd; moif tsh;g;gjpNyjhd; mjpf ftdk; nrYj;Jfpwhs;.  mts; thOk; r%fj;jpy; mtspd; fy;tp rhjid> mwpthuha;r;rpfs; kw;Wk; mtspd; r%fg;gzpfs; Mfpatw;iw tpl kw;wth;fis ftUtjw;Fk; mth;fspd; czh;Tfis J}z;Ltjw;FKs;s mtspd; jpwikjhd; mjpfkhf kjpf;fg;gLfpd;wd.  mj;jifa xUj;jpf;F jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; gpujpnahd;iw jd; ifg;igf;Fs; itj;Jf;nfhs;s mjpy; ,lkpUf;fhJ; Vnddpy; mtspd; mts; nry;Ykplj;jpw;nfy;yhk; vLj;Jr;nry;Yk; myq;fhug;nghUl;fshy; mJ epug;gg;gl;bUf;Fk;.  mtspd; fth;r;rpf;Nf r%fk; mjpf Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLg;gjhy; mq;Nf mtspd; Mj;kpf elj;ijfSf;F ,lkpy;iy.  MfNt mts; jd; kdpjj;jd;ikia tsh;g;gjpy; jd; Kaw;rpfis nrytspg;gij tpl mjpfk; jd; ngz;ikj;jd;ikia tsg;gLj;JtjpNyNa nrytspg;ghs;.

Vd; K];ypk; r%fq;fs; ,];yhj;jpd; NghjidfspypUe;J tpyfpaJ?  njw;F vspa gjpy; ,y;iyjhd;.  ngz;fs; rk;ge;jkhf K];ypk;fs; Vd; jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; fl;lisfis filg;gpbf;ftpy;iy vd;w fhuzq;fis Mo;e;J Muha;r;rp nra;tJ ,e;jf; fl;Liufspd; jiyg;gpw;F cl;gl;ljy;y. ,Ug;gpDk;> K];ypk;fs; ,];yhj;jpd; gy tpraq;fis tpl;L tpl;L ntF fhykhfNt tpyfpg;NghAs;sdh; vd;gij ehk; Ghpe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. mth;fs; ek;gpf;if nfhs;s Ntz;ba tpraq;fSf;Fk; mth;fs; nra;J nfhz;bUg;gitfSf;FkpNla kpfg;ngUk; ,ilntsp ,Uf;fpwJ. ,e;j ,ilntsp Gjpjhf Vw;gl;l epfo;r;rpay;y.  ,J gy E}w;whz;Lfshf ,Ue;J tUfpwJ NkYk; ehSf;F ehs; mJ mjpfg;gl;Lf;nfhz;Ljhd; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. ,e;j tsh;e;J tUk; ,ilntsp K];ypk; cyfpd; kPJ, mth;fs; tho;f;ifapd; midj;J JiwfspYk; kpfTk; mopTjUk; tpisTfis Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ: murpay; nfhLq;Nfhd;ik> xw;WikFiyT> nghUshjhu tPo;r;rp> r%f mePjp> mwptpay; Muha;r;rpapy; jpthyhfpapUg;gJ> rpe;jid Njf;fk; Nghd;witfs; mitfshFk;. ,d;iwa K];ypk; r%fj;jpy; ngz;fSf;F ,];yhj;jhy; toq;fg;gl Ntz;ba me;j];Jfs; toq;fg;glhkypUg;gJ xU Mokhd Nehapd; milahsNkahFk;.  K];ypk; r%fj;jpd; tho;f;if Kiw KOtijAk; rPh;jpUj;j  eltbf;if vLf;fhky; K];ypk; ngz;fspd; me;j];ij cah;j;Jtjw;fhf vLf;fg;gLk; ve;j Kaw;rpAk; gydspf;Fnkd vjph;ghh;f;fg;glKbahJ. K];ypk;fis ,];yhj;jpd; nfhs;iffNshL kpfTk; neUf;fp itf;ff;$ba kWkyh;r;rpjhd; ,g;NghJ Njitg;gLfpd;wJ mijtpl;L tpyf;fpf;nfhz;L Nghff;$ba vJTk; mtrpakpy;iy.  ,];yhk; Kw;wpYk; jtwhd Kiwapy; Ghpe;J nfhs;sg;gl;ljdhNyNa ,d;iwa K];ypk; ngz;fs; kpfj; jho;e;j epiyf;F js;sg;gl;Ls;sdh;.  K];ypk;fSf;F nghJthf Vw;gLk; gpur;idfs; mth;fs; ,];yhj;jpd; nfhs;iffis jPtPukhf filg;gpbj;jjdhy; Vw;gl;ljy;y khwhf mth;fs; mjpypUe;J neLq;fhykhf kpf mjpfk; tpyfpapUg;gjdhNa Vw;gl;ljhFk;.

,Ug;gpDk;> ,e;j Muha;r;rp fl;Liufspd; Nehf;fk; A+j-fpwp];jt kjq;fis ,opTgLj;Jtjy;y vd;gij ehk; kPz;Lk; typAWj;jpf; $wpf;nfhs;fpNwhk;.  ,Ugjhk; E}w;whz;by; ngz;fSf;F toq;fg;gl;l me;j];ij A+j-fpwp];jt rl;lq;fs; mth;fSf;F (Vw;fdNt) toq;fpapUe;jNjhL xg;gpl;L Nehf;fpdhy; ,e;j A+j-fpwp];jt kjr; rl;lq;fs; kpfTk; gaq;fukhditahf Njhd;wyhk;. ,Ug;gpDk;> mij ehk; rhpahd rhpj;jpu gpz;zdpNahLjhd; Nehf;f Ntz;Lk;.  NtW thh;j;ijfspy; nrhy;tjhdhy;> A+j-fpwp];jt kjj;jpy; ngz;fspd; epiy gw;wp ghuhgl;rkw;w ve;j Ma;Tk; nra;a Ntz;Lkhdhy;> ,e;j rl;lq;fs; cUthd rhpj;jpu gpz;zdpfisg; gw;wpAk; ehk; Muha Ntz;Lk;. ngz;fs; gw;wpa A+j mwpqh;fs; kw;Wk; fpwp];jt ghjphpahh;fs; MfpNahh;fspd; rpe;jidg;Nghf;Ffs; mth;fspd;  r%fj;jpy; epytpte;j rpe;jidg;Nghf;Ffspd; jhf;fq;fspdhy; cz;lhditNa. iggps; $l gy;NtW Mrphpah;fshy; gy;NtW fhyq;fspy; vOjg;gl;lNj.  mth;fs; tho;e;J te;j r%fj;jpd; khz;Gfs; kw;Wk; tho;f;if Kiwfs; Mfpatw;wpd; jhf;fq;fs; mth;fs; Nky; CLUtpapUf;fhky; ,Ue;jpUf;f KbahJ.  cjhuzkhf> gioa Vw;ghl;bd; fs;s cwT gw;wpa rl;lk; ngz;fSf;nfjpuhf kpfTk; xUjiyg;gl;rkhdjhf> ek; gFj;jwpit Kw;wpYk; Njhw;fbf;$bajhf ,Uf;fpwJ. ,Ug;gpDk; Kd;Ds;s A+j Fyq;fs; jq;fs; guk;giuia fhf;f Ntz;Lnkd;gjpy; kpfTk; ftdkhfTk; kw;w rKjhaj;jpdhplkpUe;J jq;fis gphpj;J fhz;gpj;Jf; nfhs;tjpy; kpfTk; Mh;tKilath;fshfTkpUe;jhh;fs; vd;gij ehk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.  jpUkzkhd ngz;fs; fs;sTwT nfhs;tJ khj;jpuk;jhd; ,e;j ,yl;rpaj;ijNa nfLf;ff;$baJ vd;W mth;fs; ek;gpdhh;fs; vd;gij Ghpe;J nfhz;lhy; mth;fspd; ,j;jifa xUjiyg;gl;rkhd rl;lj;jpw;fhd fhuzj;ijAk; Ghpe;J nfhs;s KbAk; Mdhy; mjw;fhf ehk; mij mq;fPfhpj;jpl KbahJ. mJNghy> ngz;fSf;nfjpuhf fpwp];jt ghjphpahh;fspd; xUjiyg;gl;r eltbf;iffSk; mth;fs; tho;e;J te;j Nuhk-fpNuf;f fyhr;rhuq;fspd; nry;thf;fpdhy; cz;lhdJ vd;gijAk; ehk; tpsq;fpf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.  rk;ge;jg;gl;l rhpj;jpug; gpz;zdpfis ftdj;jpy; nfhs;shky;  A+j-fpwp];jt rl;lq;fis gw;wp kjpg;gpLtJ epahakhd xd;whf ,Uf;fhJ.

cyf rhpj;jpuj;jpw;Fk; khdpl fyhr;rhuj;jpw;Fk; ,];yhk; mspj;Js;s kpfr; rpwe;j rl;lq;fspd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij Ghpe;J nfhs;tjw;F ,e;j A+j-fpwp];jt rl;lq;fspd; rhpj;jpug; gpz;zdpia rhpahd Kiwapy; mwpe;J nfhs;tJ kpfTk; Kf;fpakhdjhFk;.  A+j fpwp];jt rl;lq;fs; mg;NghjpUe;j rKjha gof;f tof;fq;fs;> R{o;epiyfs;> fyhr;rhuq;fs; Mfpaitfspd; jhf;fq;fshy; cUthditNa. NkhNr> ,NaR Mfpath;fSf;F ,iwtdhy; mUsg;gl;l me;j cz;ikahd J}ij Vohk; E}w;whz;Lf;Fs;shfNt ,e;j md;dpa fyhr;rhuj;jpd; jhf;fq;fs; cUj;njhpahj mstpw;F khw;wptpl;bUe;jd. Vohk; E}w;whz;oy; A+j fpwp];jt cyfpypUe;j ngz;fspd; jho;e;j epiyahdJ ,e;j me;epa fyhr;rhu jhf;fq;fspd; tpisthy; Vw;gl;litfspy; xd;NwahFk;.  MfNt khdpl ,dj;ij kPz;Lk; Nehpa topapy; nrYj;jpLtjw;fhf Gjpa ,iwntspg;ghL tuNtz;ba Njit mg;NghJ kpfTk; mjpfkhf ,Ue;jJ. Gjpa ,iwj;J}jhpd; gzpia> A+j fpwp];jth;fis (cyfpd; kw;w midj;J rKjhaq;fisAk;) mth;fspd; NkypUf;Fk; RikfspypUe;J tpLtpf;Fk; gzpahfNt jpUkiwFh;Md; tpthpf;fpd;wJ:  me;j mUSf;Fhpath;fs; vj;jifath;fnsdpy;> mth;fs; ck;kP egpahfpa ,e;jj; J}jiug; gpd;gw;Wthh;fs;.  ,tiuf; Fwpj;J mth;fsplKs;s jt;uhj;jpYk;, ,d;[PypYk; vOjg;gl;bUg;gijf; fhz;ghh;fs;.  ,th; ed;ik nra;AkhW mth;fis VTfpd;whh;;  jPikfspypUe;J mth;fisj; jLf;fpd;whh;; NkYk;> mth;fSf;Fj; J}a;ikahdtw;iw MFkhf;Ffpd;whh;;  J}a;ikapy;yhjtw;iwj; jil nra;fpd;whh;  mth;fisg; gpizj;jpUe;j tpyq;FfisAk; cilj;njwpfpd;whh;. (7:157)

MfNt ,];yhk; A+j kjj;jpw;Nfh fpwp];jt kjj;jpw;Nfh Nghl;bahd kjkhf fUjg;glf;$lhJ.  mJ Kd; te;j ,iwntspg;ghLfspd; KOikahf> ,Wjpahdjhf> ghpG+h;tkhdjhfNt fUjg;glNtz;Lk;. 

,e;j Muha;r;rpapd; ,Wjpapy; cyf K];ypk; r%fj;jpw;F gpd;tUk; mwpTiufis toq;f tpUk;Gfpd;Nwd;.  Vuhskhd K];ypk; ngz;fspd;  mbg;gil chpikfs; ePz;l fhyq;fshfNt kWf;fg;gl;L te;Js;sd.  fle;j fhy jtWfs; rhpg;gLj;jg;glNtz;Lk;.   mt;thW nra;tJ VNjh cjtp nra;jjhf MfptplhJ; mt;thW nra;tJ K];ypk; r%fj;jpd; flikahFk;.  jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; fl;lisfs; kw;Wk; egp (]y;) mth;fspd; Nghjidfspd; mbg;gilapy; cz;lhf;fg;gl;l ngz;fspd; chpikfspd; gl;baiy cyfyhtpa K];ypk; rKjhak; ntspapl Ntz;Lk;.  ,e;j gl;bay;> K];ypk; ngz;fSf;F mth;fspd; gilg;ghsd; toq;fpAs;s midj;J chpikfsiAk; toq;Fk;.  gpwF> ,e;jg;gl;baypy; cs;sitfs; eil Kiwg;gLg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd vd;W cWjp nra;Ak; tifapyhd vy;yh tifahd eltbf;iffSk; vLf;fg;glNtz;Lk;.  ,e;jg; gl;bay; Kd;dNkNa nfhLf;fg;glNtz;ba xd;whf ,Ug;gpDk; ,d;Dk; fhye;jho;j;jhky; ,g;nghONj ,ij nra;tJ rpwe;jJ. jq;fspd; jha;khh;fs;> kidtpfs;> rNfhjhpfs; kw;Wk; kfs;fspd; KO chpikfSf;Fk; cyfshtpa mstpy; K];ypk;fNs cWjp nfhLf;ftpy;iynadpy; gpd; ahh;jhd; nfhLg;gh;?

NkYk;> ek;Kila Kd;Ndhh;fspd; ,];yhj;jpw;F vjpuhd fle;j fhy gof;ftof;fq;fs;> Kiwfs; Mfpaitfis clNdNa vjph;j;J epuhfhpg;gjw;F ehk; Nghjpa ijhpak; ngw Ntz;Lk;. Kd;Ndhh;fspd; gof;ftof;fq;fis fz;%bf;nfhz;L gpd;gw;wp te;j Fiu~pfis jpUkiwFh;Md; fLikahd Kiwapy; tpkh;rpf;ftpy;iyah?  ,ijaLj;J> Nkw;fj;jpa  my;yJ NtW ve;j fyhr;rhu gof;fq;fspy; vij ehk; ngw;whYk;   mtw;iw jPtpukhf MuhAk; gof;fj;ij ehk; Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.  kw;w fyhr;rhuj;ij  gwpkhwpf;nfhs;tJk; gog;gJk; ekf;F tpiykjpg;gw;w mDgtj;ij toq;Fk;.  ,e;j ghpkhw;wj;ij gilg;gpd; ,yl;rpaq;fspy; xd;whfNt jpUf;Fh;Md; fUJfpd;wJ: kdpjh;fNs  xU N[hb Mz; ngz;zpypUe;J cq;fis ehk; gilj;Njhk; NkYk; ePq;fs; (xUtiunahUth;) mwpAk; nghUl;L ehk; cq;fis rKjhaq;fshfTk; Fyq;fshfTk; Mf;fpNdhk;. (49:13)  NkYk;> kw;wth;fis fz;%bf;nfhz;L gpd;gw;Wtnjd;gJ Rakhpahijf; Fiwtpd;  rhpahd milahsk; vd;gij mJ nrhy;yhkNyNa czh;j;Jfpd;wJ.

A+j> fpwp];jt my;yJ kw;w kj-,af;fq;fisr; rhh;e;jth;fSf;F ,e;j ,Wjp thh;j;ijfs; rkh;g;gpf;fg;gLfpd;wd:  ngz;fspd; me;j];ij kpfg; Gul;rpfukhf;fpa xU kjj;ij ngz;fis eRf;Fk; kjkhf Rl;bf;fhl;lg;gl;L nfbg;gLtJ kpfTk; tUj;jj;jpw;FhpajhFk;. ,];yhj;ij gw;wpa ,e;j epidg;G ,d;W cyfpy; kpf mjpfkhf gutpAs;s fl;Lf;fijfspy; xd;NwahFk;. jq;Fjilapy;yhky; ntspte;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; fhkj;ij J}z;Lk; Gj;jfq;fs;> fl;Liufs;> nra;jp gug;G glq;fs; kw;Wk; `hypTl; glq;fshYk; ,e;j fl;Lf;fij gug;gg;gl;L tUfpd;wJ. ,e;j jtwhd vz;zj;ij cz;lhf;ff; $ba> top nfLf;Fk; rpj;jpuq;fs; jtph;f;f Kbahj tpisTfisfsh Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ vd;dntdpy;  ,];yhj;ij Kw;wpYk; jtwhf Ghpe;Jnfhs;tJ> ,];yhj;NjhL rk;ge;jg;gl;l vijAk; gaj;NjhL Nehf;FtJ xU Nghd;w czh;Tfs;jhd;. ghuhgl;rk;> xUjiyg;gl;rk;> jg;ggpg;guhak; Mfpait mw;w cyfpy; ehk; tho Ntz;Lkhdhy; ,];yhj;ij gw;wp cyf nra;jp ];jhgdq;fshy; jtwhf rpj;jhpf;fg;gLk; ,e;jg;Nghf;F Kbtpw;F tu Ntz;Lk;.  K];ypk;fspd; ek;gpf;iffs; mth;fspd; nray;fs; Mfpatw;wpw;fpilNa ,Uf;Fk; kpfg;ngUk; ,ilntspia K];ypk; my;yhjth;fs; czu Ntz;Lk;.  K];ypk;fspd; eltbf;iffs; ,];yhj;ij jtwhky; gpujpgypg;gjpy;iy vd;w rhjhuz cz;ikia mth;fs; czu Ntz;Lk;. ,d;iwa Nkw;fj;jpa ngz;fspd; epiyia A+j-fpwp];jt nfhs;iffSf;fpiae;jJ vd;W Kj;jpiu Fj;jpdhy; mJ vt;tsT cz;ikf;F Gwk;ghdjhf ,Uf;FNkh mJ Nghy ,d;iwa K];ypk; cyfpy; ngz;fspd; epiyia ,];yhkpa nfhs;iffSf;fpiae;j epiy vd Kj;jpiu Fj;JtJ cz;ikf;F Gwk;ghdjhFk;.  ,ij njspthf kdjpy; ,Uj;jpf;nfhz;L> K];ypk;fSk; K];ypky;yhjth;fSk; jq;fSf;fpilNa ,Uf;Fk; jg;ggpg;guhaq;fs;> re;Njfq;fs;> gak; Mfpatw;iw fisAk; Nehf;fj;Jld; jq;fSf;fpilNa njhlh;G nfhz;L Ngr;Rthh;j;ij elj;j Ntz;Lk;. kdpj ,dj;jpw;F mikjpahd xU vjph;fhyk; Ntz;Lnkd;gJ mj;jifa Ngr;Rthh;j;ijia kpfTk; mtrpag;gLj;Jfpd;wJ.

etPd cyfk; ngz;fSf;F ,e;j E}w;whz;by;jhd; mq;fPfhpj;j gy chpikfis (gjpdhd;F E}w;whz;LfSf;F Kd;ghfNt) mth;fSf;F mspj;J mth;fspd; me;j];ij kpfTk; cah;j;jpa xU kjkhfNt ,];yhk; Nehf;fg;glNtz;Lk;. ,d;iwa cyf ngz;fSf;F mspg;gjw;F ,];yhj;jplk; ,d;Dk; Vuhsdkhditfs; cs;sd:   mth;fspd; Mj;kPf> gFj;jwpT> ngsjPf> czh;T Mfpa Njitfis epiwNtw;Wk; tifapy; Njitahdtw;iw mspj;J rkg;gLj;jp> mq;fPfhpj;jJ Nghf>  gpwg;G Kjy; ,wg;G tiuapYk; tho;f;ifapd; midj;J JiwfspYk; fz;zpak;> khpahij> ghJfhg;G Nghd;witfis mth;fSf;F mspf;Fk;. gphpl;ldpy; K];ypk;fshf Mfpath;fspy; ngUk;ghyhdth;fs; ngz;fs; vd;gjpy; ve;j M;r;rhpaKk; ,y;iy. xU MZf;F ehY Ngh; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; mnkhpf;fhtpy; ngz;fs; K];ypk;fshfpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wdh;.85 xOf;fk; rk;ge;jkhd topfhl;Ljy; kw;Wk; rhpahd jiyikj;Jtk; Mfpait kpf mjpfkhf Njitg;gLk; ,t;Tyfpw;F mspg;gjw;nfd Vuhskhdtw;iw ,];yhk; jd;dfj;Nj nfhz;Ls;sJ.  n`h;kd; vypl;]; vd;w mnkhpf;f J}Jth; mnkhpf;f Foreign Affairs of the oouse of Representatives of the United States Congress vd;w fkpl;oapd; Kd; 24-06-95 md;W rkh;g;gpj;j mwpf;ifapy; ,d;iwa cyfpy; thOk; K];ypk;fs; Vwf;Fiwa xU gpy;ypad; Ngh; cs;sdh;.  ,J kpfTk; kdijf;ftUk; vz;zpf;ifahFk;.  ,J Nghy; kdij ftUk; kw;nwhU tprak; vd;dntdpy; ,];yhk;jhd; ,d;W cyfpNyNa Ntfkhf tsh;e;J tUk; Vfj;Jt nfhs;if nfhz;l kjkhFk;. ,J ehk; ed;F ftdpf;f Ntz;ba tprakhFk;.  ,];yhk; rhpahd khh;f;fkhFk;.  mJ Vuhskhd kf;fis fth;e;j tz;zkpUf;fpd;wJ.  Mk;. ,];yhk; rhpahd khh;f;fNk!  mij fz;L nfhs;tjw;F ,Jjhd; rkak;.  ,e;j Muha;r;rp me;j jpiria Nehf;fp xU gbahf ,Uf;Fnkd ehd; ek;GfpNwd;.

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         Mjhu E}w;fs;

1.               The Glo,e and Mail, Oct. 4.1994.

2.               Leonard J. Swidler, Women in Judaism:  the Status of Women in Formative Judaism (Metuchen, N.J: Scarecrow Press, 1976) p. 115.

3.               Thena Kendath, Memories of an Orthodox youth in Susannah oeschel, ed. On ,eing a Jewish Feminist (New York: Schocken Nooks, 1983), pp. 96-97.

4.               Swidler, op. cit., pp. 80-81.

5.               Rosemary R. Ruether, Christianity, in Arvind sharma, ed., Women in World Religions (Alnany: State University of New Youk Press, 1987) p. 209.

6.               For all the sayings of promi,ent Saints, see Karen Armstrong, The Gospel According to Woman (London: Elm Tree Nooks, 1986) pp. 52-62.  See also Nancy van Vuuren, The Sunversion of Women as Practiced ny Churches, Witch-ounters, and OtherSexists (Philadelphia: Westminister Press) pp. 28-30.

7.               Swidler, op. cit., p. 140.

8.               Denise L. Carmody, Judaism, in Arvind Sharma, ed., op. cit., p. 197.

9.               Swidler, op. cit., p. 137.

10.            Inid., p. 138.

11.            Sally Priesand, Judaism and the New Woman (New York: Nehrman oouse, Inc., 1975) p. 24.

12.            Swidler, op. cit., p. 115.

13.            Lesley oazleton, Israeli Women The Reality Nehind the Myths   (New Youd: Simon and Schuster, 1977) p. 41.

14.            Gage, op. cit., p. 142

15.            Jeffrey o. Togay, Adultery, Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol.  II, col. 313.  Also, see Judith Plaskow, Standing Again at Sinai:  Judaism from a Feminist Perspective (New Youk:  oarper ~ Row Punlishers, 1990) pp. 170-177.

16.            oazleton, op. cit., pp. 41-42.

17.            Swidler, op. cit.,  p. 141.

18.            Matilda J. Gage, Woman, Church, and State (New Youk : Truth Seeker Company, 1893) p. 141

19.            Louis M. Epsten, The Jewish Marriage Contract (New Youk: Arno Press, 1973) p. 149.

20.            Swidler, op. cit., ;. 142.

21.            Epstein, op. cit., pp. 164-165.

22.            Inid., pp. 112-113.  See also Priesand, op. cit., p.15

23.            James A. Nrundage, Law, Sex and Christian Society in Medieval Europe (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987) p.88.

24.            Inid., p. 480.

25.            Thompson, Women, in Stuart England and America (London: routledge ~ Kegan Paul, 1974) p. 162.

26.            Mary Murray, The Law of the Father (London: Routledge, 1995) p. 67.

27.            Gage, op. cit., p. 143.

28.            For example, see Jeffrey Lang Struggling to Surrender, (Neltsville, MD: Amana Punlications, 1994) p. 167.

29.            Elsayyed Saniq, Fiqh al Sunnah (Cairo: Darul Fathah lilelam Al-Arani, 11th edition, 1994), vol. 2, pp. 218-229.

30.            Andel-oaleem Anu Shuqqa, Tahreer al Maraa fi Asr al Risala (Kuwait: Dar al Qalam, 1990) pp. 190-112.

31.            Leila Nadawi, Islam, in Jean oolm and John Nowker, ed., Women in Religion (London: Pinter Punlishers, 1994) p. 102

32.            Amir o. Siddiqi, Studies in Islamic oistory (Karachi : Jamiyatul Falah Punlications, 3rd edition, 1967) p.138.

33.            Epstein, op. cit., p. 196.

34.            Swidler, op. cit., pp. 162-163.

35.            The Toronto Star, Apr. 8, 1995.

36.            Saniq. op. cit., pp. 318-329.  See also Muhammad al Ghazali, Qadaya al Maraa nin al Taqaleed al Rakida wal Wafida (Cairo: Dar al Shorooq, 4th edition, 1992) pp. 178-180.

37.            Inid., pp. 313-318.

38.            David W. Amram, The Jewish Law of Divorce According to Ninle and Talmud (Philadelphia: Edward Stern ~ CO., Inc., 1896) pp. 125-126.

39.            Epstein, op. cit., p. 219.

40.            Inid, pp. 156-157.

41.            Muhammad Anu Zahra, Usnu al Fiqh al Islami (Cairo: al Majlis al Ala li Riayat al Funun, 1963) p. 66.

42.            Epstein, op. cit., p. 122.

43.            Armstrong op. cit., p. 8.

44.            epstein, op. cit., p. 175.

45.            Inid., p. 121.

46.            Gage, op. cit., p. 142.

47.            Aisha Lemu and Fatima oeeren, Woman in Islam (London: Islamic Foundation, 1978) p.23.

48.            oazleton, op. cit., pp. 45-46.

49.            Inid., p. 47.

50.            Inid., p. 49.

51.            Swidler, op. cit., pp. 144-148.

52.            oazleton, op. cit., pp 44-45.

53.            Euge,e oillman, Polygamy Reconsidered: African Plural Marriage and the Christian Churches (New York: Ornis Nooks, 1975) p.140.

54.            Inid., p. 17.

55.            Inid., pp. 88-93.

56.            Inid., pp. 92-97.

57.            Philip. L. Kilnride, P.lural Marriage For Our Times (Westport, Conn.: Nergin ~ Garvey, 1994) pp 108-109.

58.            The Weekly Review, Aug. 1, 1987.

59.            Kilnride, op. cit., p. 126.

60.            John EEmilio and Estelle N. Freedman, Intimate Matters: A history of Sexuality in America (New Youk: oarper ~ Row Punlishers, 1988) p. 87.

61.            Ute Frevert, Women in German oistory:  from Nourgeois Emancipation to Sexual Li,eration (New York: Nerg Punlishers, 1988) pp. 263-264.

62.            Inid., pp. 257-258.

63.            Saniq, op. cit., p. 191.

64.            oillman, op. cit., p. 12.

65.            Nathan oare and Julie oare, ed;, Crisis in Nlack Sexual Politics (San Francisco: Nlack Think Tank, 1989) p. 25.

66.            Inid., p. 26.

67.            Kilnride, op. cit., p. 94.

68.            Inid., p. 95.

69.            Inid.

70.            Inid. pp. 95-99.

71.            Inid., p. 118.

72.            Lang, op. cit., p. 172.

73.            Kilnride, op. cit., pp. 72-73.

74.            Saniq, op. cit., pp. 187-188.

75.            Andul Rahman Doi, Woman in Shariah (London: Ta=oa Punlishers, 1994) p. 76.

76.            Menachem M. Nrayer, The Jewish Woman in Ranninic Literature: A Psychosocial Perspective (oonoken, N.J: Ktave Punlishing oouse, 1986) p. 239.

77.            Inid., pp. 316-317.  Also see Swidler, op. cit., pp. 121-123.

78.            Inid., p. 139.

79.            Susan W. Sch,eider, Jewish and Female (New Yourk: Simon ~ Schuster, 1984) p. 237.

80.            Inid., pp. 238-239.

81.            Alexandra Wright, Judaism, in oolm and Nowker, ed., op. cit., pp. 128-129.

82.            Clara M. oenning, Cannon Law and the Nattle of the Sexes: in Rosemary R. Ruether, ed., Religion and Sexism:  Images of Woman in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974) p. 272.

83.            Donald N. Kraynill,  The riddle of the Amish Culture (Naltimore: Johns oopkins University Press, 1989) p. 56.

84.            Khalil Ginran, Thoughts and Meditations (New York: Nantam Nooks, 1960) p. 28.

85.            The Times, Nov. 18, 1993.

 

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